Solar air heater, for any type of house, by Guy Isabel.
The design of this solar heating was strongly inspired by Guy Isabel, on the plans he describes in his book Les capteurs solaires à air, Eyrolles edition.
The sun transmits energy to the earth by radiation. At the equator, the radiation reaches the power of 1000 W / m², it is by comparison, the power of a small electric heater.
Solar energy is a free and intermittent energy, which is relatively simple to transform efficiently as heat, (yield easily above 60%).
This website allows to know according to the season and the geographical position, many parameters such as the maximum power per m², the angle of the sun compared to the place.
This other website makes it possible to calculate these values almost everywhere on earth by taking into account the horizon line, the orientation of the panels and other parameters. The values displayed by default correspond to the photovoltaic energy generated, but it is possible to display the radiation in kwh/m².
Solar air heater
Concretely, it is a question of transforming the solar radiation into heat thanks to what is called a black body (for example the very hot tar in the summer or the dashboard of a car parked in full sun).
For housing, the most common systems on this principle are solar water heaters, often installed on the slopes of roofs to make domestic hot water supplements of conventional systems.
Less known, the air sensor allows to heat the air of a room.
This tutorial presents the manufacture of an air sensor of 2 m² designed for the heating of the air of a room of 10 to 15 m² of 5 to 7 ° C winter on average, for France. It is a complement to the conventional heating system, which allows appreciable financial and ecological savings. At a cost of around € 200, it is quickly amortized.
In winter, the sensor sucks in the air from below, heats it thanks to the shaving sun, then restores it to the habitat through the high outlet, at a temperature of up to 70 ° C locally instantly diluted in the ambient atmosphere.
In summer, an external hatch allows to reject the hot air of the sensor outside while aspiring at the same time the air of the habitat, thus creating a natural ventilation.
A valve connected to a thermostatic jack, allows to manage automatically and without electricity, the opening of the air circulation, only when it has reached more than 25 ° C in the sensor.Retrouvez dans ce rapport une analyse à l'usage de ce chauffage solaire, ainsi que des 11 autres low-techs expérimentées lors du projet En Quête d'un Habitat Durable.
The tutorial presented here is 2.09m x 1.09m overall
Detailed plans and CAO have been realised by Enerlog. They are available in open-source here : https://cloud.ecutsa.fr/index.php/s/apRoi395xdQb52T#pdfviewer
Those plans have been used for the first version built during a workshop. They are shared here in order to respond to one of the objective of Enerlog: to support the reappropriation of the knowledge by the citizens by sharing knowledge and promote its transmission.
Note: Here, the frame is sized to accommodate a glass 1m x 2m by 6mm thick, a 10mm film plywood bottom and a 22mm insulating layer in STEICO. The dimensions will therefore be adapted according to the availability of each.
Note: These 32mm correspond to the insulating thickness + filmed plywood. There is 8mm remaining on the other edge to accommodate the thickness of the glass and a seal comribande.
Note: This cut allows to find the dimension 1m x 2m of the window inside the frame.
Note: Here, the chosen ventilation flap is 100mm in diameter, so it is at this diameter that the inlet and the outlet will be made.
Note: Depending on the chosen insulation, the installation of a rain screen at the back is not necessarily necessary if it is well waterproof.
Note: In order to reduce the energy loss in the sensor, the film plywood bottom is covered with an aluminum layer to reflect the infrared radiation in the sensor.
Note: Here, the gap including 2 cleats is 220mm, this is the width of the slates used later. This spacing will allow a slight recovery of each slate.
'Note' : Here, the gap including 2 cleats is 220 mm, this is the width of the slates used later. This spacing will allow a slight recovery of each slate.
Note: The row of slate is raised near the exit so that the air in front of and behind the slates can be evacuated, both in winter and in summer by the "summer hatch".
Note: Here, a tempered glass 6mm thick is used. It is also possible to use polycarbonate.
'Note:' The baffles are used to hold the glass in its housing by compressing the compression joint. They must both cover the edge of the glass and rest on the frame.
Note: The thermostatic cylinder works without electricity. It contains a calibrated material that expands from 25 ° C and retracts below.
Vous pouvez télécharger une fiche pédagogique créée par le Low-tech Lab à l'occasion de l'exposition "En Quête d'un Habitat Durable" dans la partie "Fichiers" du tutoriel (onglet au niveau de la section "Outils-Matériaux")