Domestic cultivation of edible mushrooms.
This leaflet deals with the domestic cultivation of edible mushrooms, in this case grey oyster mushrooms "".
Advantages of growing gray oyster mushrooms
Fungi are one of the few organisms that feed on lignin and cellulose. These elements are present in many wastes from agriculture and other activities (straw, coffee grounds, sawdust, etc.). It is therefore an excellent way to recover these wastes. At the end of mushroom cultivation, it is possible to reintegrate the mycelium and substrate used for cultivation into the compost. Mushroom growing can therefore provide additional income for producers of this type of waste. As an example, une jeune entreprise de paris a produit 2,5T de pleurotes sur 30m² en 6 mois en réutilisant du marc de café
Oyster mushrooms are not among the most nutritious foods, however they are a source of several interesting elements: vitamins B3 (niacin), B2, B5, minerals (copper, phosphorus, potassium, iron, zinc), and oyster mushrooms contain more protein than most vegetables. Click here for more information on the nutritional values of oyster mushrooms.
Stage of cultivation :
Note : Cardboard has the advantage of being a "selective" culture medium because it is low in nutrients and sugar. Most contaminants need sugar in the substrate to grow, whereas mycelium (of species growing on wood) can be satisfied with cardboard.
The mushrooms we intend to grow for consumption must be able to colonize the substrate before other fungi and bacteria. To this end, we sterilize the substrate and the bottle to which we will add the previously cultivated mycelium (free of any contaminants). This technique gives the cultivated mushroom a head start over the others.
Note: To know the right level of humidity, press a pellet of sawdust, a few droplets should flow and not a trickle of water.
In the forest, the mycelium lodges under the bark in the semi-darkness; in autumn, when it starts raining and the temperature drops, this causes stress that pushes it to bear fruit in order to reproduce.
This fruitification initiation is by far the most delicate stage in the cultivation of mushrooms. The grower must implement an "initiation strategy" in order to produce a change in environmental variables to trigger the formation of primordias (mushroom embryo).
The four main environmental factors to be controlled during fruit initiation are: humidity, aeration, temperature and light.
High humidity between 95% and 100% should be provided by light and regular watering. The substrate must be placed in conditions close to fog when it arrives in the fruiting chamber. When the primordias begin to form, a gradual decrease in moisture to 90% is generally beneficial.
Good aeration favours the appearance of primordias. Thanks to aeration, the carbon dioxide (CO2) content decreases rapidly while oxygen (O2) increases.
Many species will not form fungi until the temperature decreases. The ideal time to vary the temperature (and other factors) is when the substrate is completely colonized. When the temperature is changed, it will take between 24 and 72 hours for the temperature inside the substrate to equal that of the ambient air.
For the oyster mushroom:
T°C of apparition of primordias: 10-15°C
T°C of fructification: 10-21°C
In nature, light acts as a warning to the mycelium that it should form fungi so that their spores are dispersed in an open environment. Light plays a role in the elongation of the foot and the development of the cap of the fungus. Ideal lighting conditions (intensity and wavelength) vary from species to species. Indirect sunlight, or light filtered by the forest canopy, is considered ideal for woodland mushrooms. The photoperiod and specific wavelengths have not yet been established for all species of fungi. Direct sunlight or high intensity light is harmful to the mycelium. Neon lights are not harmful to the mycelium and can be used for indoor cultivation.
Potential harvest : 750g to 2kg of mushrooms for 1kg of substrate depending on the maturity of the mushrooms and the number of harvests. Under good conditions, 3 to 4 harvests can be obtained, spaced 7 to 14 days apart over a period of 45 and 55 days.
Information translated from the book by Paul Stamets : Growing gourmet and medicinal mushroom.