Difference between revisions of "Phytoépuration eaux usées/en"

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|Main_Picture=Phytoépuration_eaux_usées_47959486016_881fc69611_k.jpg
 
|Main_Picture=Phytoépuration_eaux_usées_47959486016_881fc69611_k.jpg
 
|Licences=Attribution (CC BY)
 
|Licences=Attribution (CC BY)
|Description=Ecological wastewater sanitation
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|Description=Ecological Sanitation of Wastewater
 
|Area=Habitat, Water
 
|Area=Habitat, Water
 
|Type=Tutorial
 
|Type=Tutorial
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{{Introduction
 
{{Introduction
|Introduction=The purpose of water sanitation is to transform water that has been polluted by human activity (domestic, agricultural, industrial) into water that can be assimilated into the natural environment. There are numerous water sanitation solutions in existence on a collective scale* [especially in France] as individual solutions, declared autonomous. All of these are based on bacteriological activity to clean up contaminated water. Likewise, each system, in its output, returns the water to the natural environment by infiltration or by leach field. The output of this water sanitation is not potable. It is highly rich in minerals that the sun and plants may assimilate, comparable to a fertilizer. Returning it to the aquatic environment is prohibited, save for in cases in which infiltration or leaching is not possible [translator note: depending on your country]. As the aquatic environment is more sensitive than the soil, the input of nutrient-laden water involves a high risk of disrupting the natural environment, going as far as asphyxiation or [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eutrophication eutrophication].
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|Introduction=The purpose of water sanitation is to transform water that has been polluted by human activity (domestic, agricultural, industrial) into water that can be assimilated into the natural environment. There are numerous water sanitation solutions from the collective level that exist as individual solutions, referred to as "autonomous." All of these are based on bacteriological activity to clean up contaminated water. Likewise, each system, at its output, returns the water to the natural environment by infiltration or by leach field. The output of this water sanitation is not potable. It is highly rich in minerals that the sun and plants may assimilate, comparable to a fertilizer. Returning it to the aquatic environment is prohibited in most cases, except when infiltration or leaching is not possible. As the aquatic environment is more sensitive than the soil, the input of nutrient-laden water involves a high risk of disrupting the natural environment, or even causing asphyxiation or [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eutrophication eutrophication].
  
 
=== Types of pollution and sanitation ===
 
=== Types of pollution and sanitation ===
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Water pollution is grouped into four families:
 
Water pollution is grouped into four families:
  
*organic pollution (carbonaceous, nitrogenous, phosphorus) mainly results from substances of biological origin (excrement, urine, manure, slurry, etc.). These particles are oxidizable, that is to say that in the presence of oxygen bacteria are able to degrade them and transform them into minerals.
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*Organic pollution (carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus) mainly comes from substances of biological origin (excrement, urine, manure, slurry...). These particles are oxidizable, that is to say, that in the presence of oxygen, bacteria are able to degrade them and transform them into minerals.
  
*microbiological pollution is linked to the previous one. Being loaded with excrement, wastewater is rich in pathogenic microorganisms: viruses, bacteria, etc. which are harmful to health and the environment. Strong bacterial competition prevents the development and the proliferation of these parasites.
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*Microbiological pollution is linked to organic pollution. Full of excrement, wastewater is rich in pathogenic microorganisms: viruses, bacteria, etc. which are harmful to health and the environment. High bacterial competition inhibits the development and proliferation of these parasites.
  
*chemical pollution includes all the major pollutants resulting from human activity such as drugs, pesticides, hydrocarbons, metals and heavy metals... These chemicals are dangerous for the environment which they pollute durably because of their high toxicity and low biodegradability. Current sanitation systems (collective or not) are very inefficient in the face of this complex and varied pollution. Pollutants therefore end up in the natural environment and are bio-accumulated.  In this way, they move up the food chain and increase their concentration at each new level.
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*Chemical pollution is comprised of all the major pollutants resulting from human activity such as medicines, pesticides, hydrocarbons, metals and heavy metals. These chemicals are dangerous for the environment, causing long-lasting pollution with their high toxicity and low biodegradability. Current sanitation systems (collective or not) are very inefficient in the face of this complex and varied pollution. Pollutants therefore end up in the natural environment and are bio-accumulated.  In this way, they move up the food chain and increase their concentration at each new level.
  
*Suspended solids (SS) are insoluble solid particles. In the long term, they cause the clogging of filtration systems.
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*Suspended solids (SS) are insoluble solid particles. Over time, they clog filtration systems.
  
===La phytoépuration – les filtres plantés===
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===Phyto-purification - planted filters===
  
Comme tous les autres systèmes d’assainissement (station d’épuration, fosse septique, fosses toutes eaux, microstation…) la phytoépuration est basée sur le principe de séparation des matières solides et liquides ainsi que la dégradation des particules par les bactéries. La phytoépuration (ou les filtres plantés) repose sur trois acteurs :
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Like all the other sanitation systems (water treatment plants, septic systems, all-water treatment systems...) phyto-purification is based on the principle of separating solids from liquids as well as the bacterial degradation of particles. Phyto-purification (or the planted filter) is based on three actors:
  
- les bactéries, elles dégradent les particules organiques pour les rendre assimilables par le milieu naturel,
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- Bacteria. It degrades the organic particles to render them assimilable to the natural environment.
  
- le substrat, constitué de graviers ou granulats, il constitue l’habitat des bactéries qui viennent se fixer à la surface de chaque élément. Il joue également un rôle important pour l’enracinement des plantes. Avec une granulométrie allant du plus fin au plus grossier, le substrat est également un filtre permettant de laisser passer l’eau tout en bloquant les plus gros éléments.
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- The substrate, comprised of gravel or aggregate, creates a habitat for the bacteria, which settle upon the surface of each material. It plays an equally important role in the root systems of the plants. With granule size going from finer to coarser, the substrate is also a filter, permitting the passage of water while blocking the bigger materials.
  
- les plantes, avec le développement de leurs racines et le mouvement de leurs parties aériennes elles décolmatent le filtre qui, contrairement à toutes les autres solutions, s’auto-entretient. De plus elles stimulent l’activité bactérienne autour de leurs racines : la rhizosphère. Elles jouent un rôle mineur dans la décontamination de l’eau en absorbant une petite proportion des minéraux.
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- The plants, with the development of their roots and the movement of of their overground parts, clean the filter which, contrary to all the other solutions, self-maintains it.
  
===Intérêts et inconvénients de la phytoépuration===
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===Benefits and drawbacks of Phyto-purification===
  
La phytoépuration est une solution performante pour la qualité de l’assainissement des eaux usées. Contrairement aux autres systèmes un filtre planté ne consomme pas d’énergie électrique (brassage, bullage, pompe…) et ne demande pas d’entretien complexe tel que la vidange des boues et son acheminement vers un lieu de traitement. En étant énergétiquement/logistiquement autonome la phytoépuration est la solution d’assainissement la plus écologique.
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Phyto-purification is an effective solution to wastewater sanitation quality. Contrary to the other systems, a plant-based filter consumes no electrical energy (brewing, foaming, pumping...) and requires no complex maintenance such as sludge drainage or re-direction to treatment plants. Self-sufficient energetically and logistically, phyto-purification is the most ecological solution for wastewater sanitation.
  
La phytoépuration est une solution extensive, qui prend de la place (plus de place qu'un filtre compact mais moins de place qu'un filtre à sable), entre 2 et 4m²/équivalent habitant (EH). Les filtres sont dimensionnés en fonction de la capacité d’accueil de l’habitat et non pas le nombre d’habitants., avec une pièce principale = 1 EH. Par exemple une maison avec 3 chambres, 1 cuisine-salle à manger et 1 séjour a donc 5 pièces principales, l’assainissement doit donc avoir une capacité de 5 équivalents habitants. L’assainissement individuel étant contrôlé sur les moyens et non les résultats, il faudra au minimum 10m² de filtres plantés.
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Phyto-purification is an extensive solution which takes up between 2 and 4m²/population equivalent (PE) -- more space than a compact filter, but less space than a sand filter. The filters are sized by the accommodation capacity of the related housing, not by the number of inhabitants, with one main  room = 1 PE. For example, a house with 3 bedrooms, 1 kitchen-dining room, and 1 living room has 5 main rooms. The sanitation system must then have a capacity of 5 PE. Individual sanitation, being means-based and not end-based, would require at minimum 10m² of planted filters.
  
Les filtres ainsi installés, via la diversité des plantes filtrantes, ont un rôle esthétique dans les jardins. De plus, ils recréent des zones humides, élément nécessaire au développement de la vie. De nombreux auxiliaires (insectes, oiseaux, batraciens …) font leur retour, c’est un bon pas vers la biodiversité. La phytoépuration étant différente du lagunage il n’y a pas d’eau en surface des filtres mais des graviers, il n’y a donc pas de risque de prolifération de moustiques.
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Filters that are installed as such, thanks to the diversity of the filtering plants, play a part in the aesthetic appeal of gardens. What's more, they replicate wetlands, a necessary element in the development of natural life. Numerous helpers (insects, birds, amphibeans...) return--it's a great step toward biodiversity. Phyto-purification is different from lagoon-based systems in that there is no water on the surface of the filters, but instead gravel--therefore, no risk of the proliferation of mosquitos.
  
Il reste cependant que l’installation de filtres plantés est un investissement supérieur à celui d’une solution conventionnelle (Pour 5 EH : environ 10 000 pour les filtres plantés contre 7 000 pour une fosse toutes-eaux). Le système est rentabilisé en une quinzaine d’années car il ne demande ni entretien par une main d’œuvre qualifiée, ni vidange de fosse (il n'y a pas de fosse), ni énergie (hormis les cas nécessitant un poste de relevage pour l'alimentation des filtres, mais cela ne coûte que quelques euros par an le cas échéant).
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However, the installation of planted filters remains a greater initial investment than that of  conventional solutions (For 5 PE: approximately 10,000 for planted filters, versus 7,000 for an all-water septic system). The system becomes profitable at around 15 years, as it demands neither management by a professional workforce, tank drainage (there is no tank), nor energy (apart from cases requiring a sewage pump station for powering the filters, but this costs only a few euros per year where necessary).
  
Si votre habitat est en assainissement collectif (tout à l’égout) vous ne pouvez pas passer en assainissement autonome. Mais ne perdez pas espoir, la phytoépuration est le système d’assainissement majoritaire en France pour les villes de moins de 1 000 habitants, vos eaux usées sont peut-être déjà aux pieds des plantes !
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If your housing is part of collective or public sanitation (all to the sewer), you cannot run an autonomous sanitation system [depending on country]. But don't lose hope, phyto-purification is the dominant sanitation system in France for towns of less than 1000 inhabitants. Your wastewater may already be in the roots of plants!
  
===Autoconstruction et agréments===
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===Building your own and approvals===
  
Pour limiter la pollution du milieu naturel, les systèmes d’assainissement sont soumis à contrôle. Une obligation de résultats est demandée à l’assainissement collectif (>20 EH). L’assainissement individuel doit répondre à une obligation de moyens.
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To limit pollution in the natural environment, sanitation systems are subject to regulation. A performance requirement is requested by the sanitation collective (>20 PE). Individual sanitation must meet an obligation of means.
  
La phytoépuration individuelle doit donc être agréée pour être mise en place, c’est-à-dire que si l’on souhaite passer en filtres plantés chez soi il faut commander une étude et l’installation à une [http://www.assainissement-non-collectif.developpement-durable.gouv.fr/les-filtres-plantes-agrees-a749.html entreprise] dont le système est protégé est a reçu un agrément ministériel.
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Individual phyto-purification must therefore be approved to be set up, which is to say, if one wishes to go ahead with planted filters at their home, it is necessary to commission a study and installation by a [http://www.assainissement-non-collectif.developpement-durable.gouv.fr/les-filtres-plantes-agrees-a749.html company] that insures the system has received a ministerial approval.
  
En France, le '''service public d'assainissement non collectif''' ('''SPANC''') est chargé du contrôle de tous les systèmes d'assainissement des eaux usées domestiques des habitations [https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Assainissement_non_collectif non raccordées au réseau d'assainissement collectif].
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In France, the '''Service Public d'Assainissement Non Collectif''' ('''SPANC''') or Public Service of Non-Collective Sanitation is charged with the regulation of all the domestic wastewater sanitation systems [https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Assainissement_non_collectif not linked to collective networks of water sanitation.]
  
Il n’empêche que l’autoconstruction est possible en faisant appel à un accompagnateur agréé qui fera l’étude des sols, le dimensionnement, fournira les matériaux et les bons conseils nécessaires à une réalisation durable et performante. L’autoconstruction permet une économie de 30% minimum sur le système global et d’aller plus loin dans la maitrise et la connaissance de son habitat.
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Be that as it may, doing one's own construction is possible by calling on a certified guide who will administer soil studies and measurements and who will provide materials and all guidance necessary for a long-lasting and effective result. Self-built systems save at least 30% of costs on the global system and take the individual further in terms of control and knowledge of one's habitat.
  
Le système présenté a été réalisé avec Kévin Quentric, accompagnateur à l’autoconstruction affilié au réseau Aquatiris. Ce tutoriel retrace les grandes étapes d’une installation, il permet d’évaluer la capacité d’autoconstruction et l’intérêt des filtres plantés. Pour passer à l’acte dans le respect de la loi Française il faudra se rapprocher d’une entreprise dons les solutions sont agréées.
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The system presented was produced with  Kévin Quentric, self-building guide affiliated with the network Aquatiris. This tutorial retraces the key milestones of an installation, providing an evaluation of the capacity of self-building and the value of the planted filters. To act in compliance with French law, it would be beneficial to connect with a company whose solutions are authorized.
  
===== Retrouvez dans [https://lowtechlab.org/assets/files/rapport-experimentation-habitat-low-tech-low-tech-lab.pdf ce rapport] <nowiki>https://lowtechlab.org/assets/files/rapport-experimentation-habitat-low-tech-low-tech-lab.pdf</nowiki> une analyse à l'usage de ce système de phytoépuration, ainsi que des 11 autres low-techs expérimentées lors du projet En Quête d'un Habitat Durable. =====
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===== Find in [https://lowtechlab.org/assets/files/rapport-experimentation-habitat-low-tech-low-tech-lab.pdf this report] <nowiki>https://lowtechlab.org/assets/files/rapport-experimentation-habitat-low-tech-low-tech-lab.pdf</nowiki> an analysis of the use of this phyto-purification system, as well as 11 other low-tech experiements throughout the project In Search of a Sustainable Habitat. ====
 
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{{TutoVideo
 
{{TutoVideo
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{{Materials
 
{{Materials
 
|Step_Picture_00=Phytoépuration_eaux_usées_FV_-_Fouille-min.JPG
 
|Step_Picture_00=Phytoépuration_eaux_usées_FV_-_Fouille-min.JPG
|Material=* Gravier (granulométrie 12/20 ou 20/40mm)
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|Material=* Gravel (granule size 12/20 or 20/40mm)
* Gravillons (granulométrie 4/8, 4/12 ou 6/10 mm)  
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* Gravel (granule size 4/8, 4/12, or 6/10 mm)
* Sable siliceux lavé (granulométrie 0/4 mm)
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* Washed silica sand
* Géotextile anti-poinçonnant
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* Puncture-resistant geotextile
* Bâche EPDM
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* EPDM sheeting
* Tuyaux PVC
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* PVC pipes
* 2 raccords T PVC
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* 2 PVC T-connectors
 
* Drains
 
* Drains
* Colle PVC
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* PVC Glue
* Deux regards
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* 2 manholes
* Deux vannes
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* 2 valves
* Deux passe-parois
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* 2 pass-through fittings
|Tools=* Quelques pelles et de bons amis ou une pelleteuse
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|Tools=* Shovels and some good friends, or an excavator
* Pelle
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* Shovel
* Pioche
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* Pick
* Râteau
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* Rake
* Niveau
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*Level
* Scie
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* Saw
* Cutter
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* Utility Knife
* Perceuse-visseuse
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* Drill-Screwdriver
*
 
 
}}
 
}}
 
{{Tuto Step
 
{{Tuto Step
|Step_Title=Dimensionnement des filtres
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|Step_Title=Filter Sizing
|Step_Content=Il existe de nombreuses solutions d’épuration par filtres plantés, le filtre proposé dans ce tutoriel est la solution la plus utilisée en assainissement collectif déclinée en  « format individuel ». Il est composé de deux filtres ayant des rôles différents : un filtre vertical puis un filtre horizontal.
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|Step_Content=While many planted filter solutions exist, the filter proposed in this tutorial is the solution most used in collective water sanitation, customized to an "individual format." It is composed of two filters having two different roles: first a vertical filter, then a horizontal filter.
  
=== Filtre vertical ===
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=== Vertical Filter ===
  
Le filtre à écoulement vertical (FV) reçoit les eaux usées chargées, il est constitué de deux lits en parallèle utilisés tour à tour. Le sable en surface du filtre permet de laisser passer l’eau en bloquant les grosses particules. L’alternance de lits d’une semaine à l’autre permet au matière de composter en surface du filtre.
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The vertical-flow filter (VF), which receives the polluted wastewater, is made up of two parallel beds, utilized alternately. The sand on the surface of the filter facilitates the passage of water while blocking the larger particles.
  
L’eau percole à travers les graviers et est collectée par un drain en bas du filtre, elle passe de 4 à 8 heures dans cette première étape. Le milieu n’est pas noyé dans l’eau il est donc riche en oxygène ce qui stimule l’activité bactérienne aérobie nécessaire à la minéralisation des particules organiques. La minéralisation est une suite de réactions chimiques complexes basée sur le principe d’oxydation des composés organiques. Cette minéralisation permet de transformer un élément non assimilable par une plante à un élément assimilable. La simplification des réactions ressemble à  Norg => NH<sub>4</sub><sup>+</sup> => NO<sub>2</sub><sup>-</sup> => NO<sub>3</sub><sup>-</sup>.
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The water percolates across the gravel and is collected by a drain at the bottom of the filter, spending between 4 and 8 hours in this first stage. The environment not being flooded with water makes it rich in oxygen, which stimulates the aerobic bacterial activity necessary for the mineralization of the  organic particles. Mineralization is a result of complex chemical reactions based on the principle of oxidation of organic compounds. It is this mineralization process that allows the transformation of an element from being non-assimilable by plants to assimilable. The simplification of of the reactions looks like: Norg => NH<sub>4</sub><sup>+</sup> => NO<sub>2</sub><sup>-</sup> => NO<sub>3</sub><sup>-</sup>.
  
Le filtre verticale fait 60 à 80 cm de profondeur et a une superficie de 2m²/EH.
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The vertical filter measures 60 to 80 cm deep and has a surface area of 2m²/PE.
  
=== Filtre horizontal ===
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=== Horizontal Filter ===
  
Le filtre à écoulement horizontal (FH) récupère les eaux usées filtrées à la suite du filtre verticale. Le filtre horizontal travaille « en charge » c’est-à-dire que le substrat est quasi saturé d’eau en permanence. En absence d’oxygène se sont des bactéries anaérobiques qui vont dénitrifier l’eau : elles prélèvent l’oxygène dont elles ont besoin sur les molécules de nitrates qui vont se transformer en diazote : N0<sub>3</sub><sup>-</sup> => N<sub>2</sub>O => N<sub>2</sub>.
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The horizontal-flow filter (HF) collects the filtered wastewater following the vertical filter. The horizontal filter works "loaded up," meaning, the substrate is nearly always saturated in water. In absence of oxygen, anaerobic bacteria denitrify, or remove the nitrogen, from the water: they collect the oxygen they need from the molecules of nitrates, which then go on to transform into dinitrogen: N0<sub>3</sub><sup>-</sup> => N<sub>2</sub>O => N<sub>2</sub>
  
Le filtre à écoulement horizontal mesure 2m²/EH pour une profondeur de 60cm.
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The horizontal-flow filter measures 2m²/PE for a depth of 60cm.
  
Pour que l’assainissement soit entièrement autonome et qu’il ne consomme pas d’énergie nous utiliserons la gravité pour alimenter les deux filtres. Il faut donc que le haut du filtre vertical soit plus bas que le point de collecte des eaux usées de la maison. De même le haut du filtre horizontal doit être plus bas que le fond du filtre vertical. L’installation sera donc probablement sur la partie basse du jardin. Si cela n’est pas possible car le terrain est plat il faut installer une pompe de relevage entre le point de collecte et le filtre vertical, ce dernier sera hors sol, le filtre horizontal quant à lui est enterré.
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In order for the sanitation to be entirely self-sufficient and to consume no energy, we use gravity to power the two filters. The top of the vertical filter, then, must be lower than the point of collection of wastewater from the house. Likewise, the top of the horizontal filter must be lower than the bottom of the vertical filter. The installation will therefore probably take place on the lowest part of the garden. If this is not possible due to flat terrain, a condensate pump can be installed between the point of collection and the vertical filter, the latter being above ground and the horizontal filter respectively being underground.
  
Les filtres doivent être installés à plus de 3 mètres d’arbres, leurs racines risqueraient de percer les membranes d’étanchéité.
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The filters must be installed at least 3 meters away from trees, as their roots may risk puncturing the waterproof linings.
 
|Step_Picture_00=Phytoépuration_eaux_usées_schema_filtre.png
 
|Step_Picture_00=Phytoépuration_eaux_usées_schema_filtre.png
 
|Step_Picture_01=Phytoépuration_eaux_usées_Schema_UP_filtres.png
 
|Step_Picture_01=Phytoépuration_eaux_usées_Schema_UP_filtres.png
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}}
 
}}
 
{{Tuto Step
 
{{Tuto Step
|Step_Title=FV - Fouille
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|Step_Title=VF - Excavation
|Step_Content=En fonction de la disposition du terrain
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|Step_Content=Depending on the characteristics of the terrain
* Creuser ou maçonner ou réaliser en bois la structure du filtre vertical de 90cm X 2m X nombre d’équivalent-habitant en mètre.
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* Dig, build, or construct from wood the structure of the vertical filter at 90cm x 2m x [PE number in meters]
  
* Ensabler légèrement pour avoir un fond plat et une pente légère (≈1%) en direction du deuxième filtre
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* Cover lightly with sand to create a flat floor with a slight slope (≈1%) in the direction of the second filter.
  
* Pour les constructions enterrées, poser une barrière anti-racines
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* For construction dug into the ground, set a root-resistant barrier down.
 
|Step_Picture_00=Phytoépuration_eaux_usées_Terrassement_FV-min.JPG
 
|Step_Picture_00=Phytoépuration_eaux_usées_Terrassement_FV-min.JPG
 
|Step_Picture_01=Phytoépuration_eaux_usées_TerrassementFV_FH-en-contrebas-min.JPG
 
|Step_Picture_01=Phytoépuration_eaux_usées_TerrassementFV_FH-en-contrebas-min.JPG
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}}
 
}}
 
{{Tuto Step
 
{{Tuto Step
|Step_Title=FV - Plomberie
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|Step_Title=VF - Plumbing
|Step_Content=* Installer un regard en haut du filtre pour l’arrivée des eaux usées chargées
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|Step_Content=* Install a manhole at the top of the filter as an inlet for the polluted wastewater.
  
* Dans ce regard installer une vanne 3 voies pour la répartition des eaux entre les 2 lits.
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* Inside the manhole, install a 3-way valve to distribute the water between the two beds.
  
* Installer un regard en bas du filtre qui récupère les eaux drainées.
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* Install a manhole at the bottom of the filter that collects the drained water.
 
|Step_Picture_00=Phytoépuration_eaux_usées_FV_-_Plomberie_3_voies-min.JPG
 
|Step_Picture_00=Phytoépuration_eaux_usées_FV_-_Plomberie_3_voies-min.JPG
 
}}
 
}}
 
{{Tuto Step
 
{{Tuto Step
|Step_Title=FV - Etanchéité
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|Step_Title=VF - Waterproofing
|Step_Content=* Poser un géotextile
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|Step_Content=* Lay down a geotextile
  
* Poser une membrane EPDM qui fera l’étanchéité
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* Install an EPDM lining which will achieve watertightness.
  
* Poser un géotextile
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* Lay down a geotextile
  
* Installer un passe* paroi sur la membrane EPDM dans le bas du filtre
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* Install a pass-through fitting on the EPDM lining in the lower end of the filter
 
|Step_Picture_00=Phytoépuration_eaux_usées_D_roulement_g_osynth_tiques-min.jpg
 
|Step_Picture_00=Phytoépuration_eaux_usées_D_roulement_g_osynth_tiques-min.jpg
 
|Step_Picture_01=Phytoépuration_eaux_usées_Travers_e_de_paroi_FH_pos_e_avant_d_coupe-min.jpg
 
|Step_Picture_01=Phytoépuration_eaux_usées_Travers_e_de_paroi_FH_pos_e_avant_d_coupe-min.jpg
 
}}
 
}}
 
{{Tuto Step
 
{{Tuto Step
|Step_Title=FV - Drainage
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|Step_Title=VF - Drainage
|Step_Content=* Poser un drain fente vers le bas dans le bas du filtre avec un T vers le passe paroi.
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|Step_Content=Install a slotted drainpipe at the bottom of the filter with a T leading to the pass-through fitting.
  
* Installer une cheminée d’aération du côté haut du drain et un bouchon de l’autre.
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* Install a ventilation shaft on the top end of the drain and a plug on the other.
  
* Remplir de gravier (granulométrie 10/20 mm) sur 20 cm
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* Fill with 20cm of gravel (granule size 10/20 mm).
  
* Séparer les deux lits en mettant une séparation en béton de 60 cm de haut sur toute la largeur
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* Separate the two beds by installing a dividing wall 60cm high along the width of the VF.
  
* Remplir de gravillons (granulométrie 4/8 mm) sur 30 cm
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* Fill with 30cm of gravel (granule size 4/8mm).
  
* Remplir de sable siliceux lavé (granulométrie 0/2 mm) sur 10 cm
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*Fill with 20cm of washed silica sand (granule size 0/2 mm).
  
* Installer les tuyaux d’alimentation en sortie de la vanne 3 voies, un pour chaque lit
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* Install the supply pipes at the outlet of the 3-way valve, one for each bed.
  
* Sous la sortie des tuyaux d’alimentations, poser une pierre, une tuile, pour éviter que l’arrivée des eaux usées ne creusent le substrat.
+
* Under the outlet of the supply pipes, place a stone or a tile to ensure that the inflow of water does not carve into the substrate.
 
|Step_Picture_00=Phytoépuration_eaux_usées_FV_-_2_lits-min.JPG
 
|Step_Picture_00=Phytoépuration_eaux_usées_FV_-_2_lits-min.JPG
 
|Step_Picture_01=Phytoépuration_eaux_usées_FV_-_Drain_-_Sable-min.JPG
 
|Step_Picture_01=Phytoépuration_eaux_usées_FV_-_Drain_-_Sable-min.JPG
Line 179: Line 178:
 
}}
 
}}
 
{{Tuto Step
 
{{Tuto Step
|Step_Title=FV - Plantation
+
|Step_Title=VF - Planting
|Step_Content=Les plantes présentent dans le filtre vertical doivent être très rustiques en résistant à de grands écarts de température entre l’été et l’hiver, aux variations entre les phases d’inondation et de repos ainsi qu’au contact avec les eaux chargées en matière organique.
+
|Step_Content=The plants present in the vertical filter need to be very hardy and resistant to great variances in temperature between the summer and winter and times of overflow and times of stillness; equally, it must withstand contact with water full of organic matter.
  
Le roseau commun (phragmites communis), à ne pas confondre avec la massette, est la plante la plus communément utilisée en filtre vertical. La densité de plantation est de 6 plants/m².
+
The common reed (Phragmites australis), not to be confused with the cattail, is the plant most commonly used in the vertical filter. The density of planting should be 6 plants/m².
  
 On peut également planter des Açores odorant, Populage des marais, Pontédérie à feuilles en cœur, Véronique des ruisseaux, Scirpe lacustre, Massettes à large feuille.
+
One could just as well plant Sweet flag, Marsh Marigold, Pickerel Weed, Brooklime, Lakeshore Bulrush, Broadleaf Cattail.
 
|Step_Picture_00=Phytoépuration_eaux_usées_800px-Phragmites_australis_inflorescences_-min.jpg
 
|Step_Picture_00=Phytoépuration_eaux_usées_800px-Phragmites_australis_inflorescences_-min.jpg
 
|Step_Picture_01=Phytoépuration_eaux_usées_Plantation_FH_1-min.JPG
 
|Step_Picture_01=Phytoépuration_eaux_usées_Plantation_FH_1-min.JPG
 
}}
 
}}
 
{{Tuto Step
 
{{Tuto Step
|Step_Title=FH - Fouille
+
|Step_Title=HF - Excavation
|Step_Content=Le haut du filtre horizontal devant être plus bas que le fond du filtre vertical, ce filtre est creusé.
+
|Step_Content=As the top of the horizontal filter must be lower than the floor of the vertical filter, this filter is carved into the earth.
* Creuser le filtre horizontal de 60cm X 2m X nombre d’équivalent* habitant en mètre.
+
* Dig out the horizontal filter to 60cm x 2m x PE in meters.
  
* Ensabler légèrement pour avoir un fond plat et une pente légère (≈1%) vers la zone d’infiltration
+
* Cover lightly with sand to create a flat floor with a slight slope (≈1%) in the direction of the infiltration zone.
 
}}
 
}}
 
{{Tuto Step
 
{{Tuto Step
|Step_Title=FH - Plomberie
+
|Step_Title=HF - Plumbing
|Step_Content=* Installer un regard en bas du filtre qui récupère les eaux drainées.
+
|Step_Content=* Install a manhole at the bottom of the filter that collects the drained water.
  
* Installer dans le regard un système de mise en charge (trop-plein) pour garder le bassin en eau. Le niveau de l’eau doit arriver quelques centimètres plus bas que les gravillons. Il faut creuser les graviers pour avoir accès à l’eau.
+
* Install in the manhole a stop-start system (overflow) to keep the basin full of water. The water level needs to come to a few centimeters lower than the gravel. You will need to dig into the gravel to have access to the water.
 
|Step_Picture_00=Phytoépuration_eaux_usées_Travers_e_terre_FH_1.JPG
 
|Step_Picture_00=Phytoépuration_eaux_usées_Travers_e_terre_FH_1.JPG
 
}}
 
}}
 
{{Tuto Step
 
{{Tuto Step
|Step_Title=FH - Etanchéité
+
|Step_Title=HF - Waterproofing
|Step_Content=* Poser un géotextile
+
|Step_Content=* Lay down a geotextile
  
* Poser une membrane EPDM qui fera l’étanchéité
+
* Install an EPDM lining which will achieve watertightness.
  
* Poser un géotextile
+
* Lay down a geotextile
  
* Installer un passe-paroi sur la membrane EPDM dans le bas du filtre
+
* Install a pass-through fitting on the EPDM lining in the bottom of the filter
 
|Step_Picture_00=Phytoépuration_eaux_usées_Remplissage_FH-min.JPG
 
|Step_Picture_00=Phytoépuration_eaux_usées_Remplissage_FH-min.JPG
 
}}
 
}}
 
{{Tuto Step
 
{{Tuto Step
|Step_Title=FH - Drainage
+
|Step_Title=HF - Drainage
|Step_Content=* Poser un drain fente vers le bas dans le bas du filtre avec un T vers le passe paroi.
+
|Step_Content=?? > * Install a drain split toward the bottom in the base of the filter with a T toward the pass-through fitting.
  
* Remplir de gravillons (granulométrie 4/8 mm) sur 40 cm
+
* Fill with 40cm of gravel (granule size 4/8mm).
 
|Step_Picture_00=Phytoépuration_eaux_usées_FH_-_Drain_6-min.JPG
 
|Step_Picture_00=Phytoépuration_eaux_usées_FH_-_Drain_6-min.JPG
 
|Step_Picture_01=Phytoépuration_eaux_usées_FH_-_Drain_5-min.JPG
 
|Step_Picture_01=Phytoépuration_eaux_usées_FH_-_Drain_5-min.JPG
Line 226: Line 225:
 
}}
 
}}
 
{{Tuto Step
 
{{Tuto Step
|Step_Title=FH - Plantation
+
|Step_Title=HF - Planting
|Step_Content=L’eau du filtre à écoulement horizontale a déjà été séparée des matières organiques, les plantes épuratoires peuvent donc un peu moins résistantes que les roseaux, tout en restant rustiques et adaptées au milieu aquatique. En général, on profite de ce filtre pour augmenter la biodiversité et introduire des plantes qui fleurissent à des périodes différentes de l’année. La densité de plantation est de 6 plants/m²
+
|Step_Content=As the water in the horizontal flow filter has already been separated from some of the organic material, the purifying plants can be a bit less durable than the reeds, while remaining hardy and adapted to an aquatic environment. Generally, the benefit of the filter is that it increases biodiversity and introduces plants that flower during different periods of the year. The planting density should be 6 plants/m²
  
Les plantes suivantes sont intéressantes dans les filtres plantés :
+
The following plants are beneficial in these planted filters:
* Massette (Typha Latifolia)
+
* Broadleaf Cattail (Typha Latifolia)
  
* Rubanier (Sparganium erectum)
+
*Branched Bur-Reed (Sparganium erectum)
  
* Plantain d’eau (Alisma plantago)
+
* Common Water Plantain (Alisma plantago)
  
* Scirpe (Scirpus lacustris)
+
* Lakeshore Bulrush (Schoenoplectus lacustris)
  
* Menthe aquatique (Mentha aquatica)
+
* Water Mint (Mentha Aquatica)
  
 
* Iris (Iris pseudocorus)
 
* Iris (Iris pseudocorus)
  
* Salicaire ( Lythrum salicaria)
+
* Purple Loosestrife ( Lythrum salicaria)
 
|Step_Picture_00=Phytoépuration_eaux_usées_Nikon_-_2018.07.17_-_58-min.JPG
 
|Step_Picture_00=Phytoépuration_eaux_usées_Nikon_-_2018.07.17_-_58-min.JPG
 
}}
 
}}
 
{{Tuto Step
 
{{Tuto Step
|Step_Title=Exutoire
+
|Step_Title=Outlet
|Step_Content=En sortie du filtre à écoulement horizontal l’eau est assimilable par le milieu naturel. La capacité d’absorption et de purification de l’eau par le sol est très importante dans sa couche superficielle : la terre végétale. L’objectif est que cette eau rejoigne doucement le milieu aquatique (nappe phréatique ou cours d’eau), l’infiltration doit donc être faite en surface.
+
|Step_Content=At the exit of the horizontal flow filter, the water is assimilable by the natural environment. The ability of the soil to purify and absorb the water is very important to its surface layer: the topsoil. The objective is for the water to slowly enter the aquatic environment (the water table or streams). The infiltration must therefore be made on the surface.
* Creuser une tranchée de 30 cm de profondeur sur quelques mètres de long en aval du filtre horizontal
 
  
* Installer un drain relié à la sortie du filtre horizontal.
+
* Install a drain connected to the outlet of the horizontal filter.
  
* Remplir de gravier
+
* Fill with gravel
Si le sol ne permet pas une infiltration car trop argileux ou compact, l’exutoire peut être un puits perdu ou directement dans un cours d’eau. Ces solutions restent toutefois à réaliser très occasionnellement et avec de grandes précautions car le milieu aquatique est particulièrement sensible aux perturbations générée par de l’apport d’eau concentrée en minéraux.
+
If the soil does not permit infiltration because it is too clayey or compact, the outlet may be a dry well or go directly into a stream. These solutions remain, however, to be used very occasionally and with great precaution since the aquatic environment is particularly sensitive to disruptions generated by the introduction of water concentrated with minerals.
 
|Step_Picture_00=Phytoépuration_eaux_usées_Infiltration-min.JPG
 
|Step_Picture_00=Phytoépuration_eaux_usées_Infiltration-min.JPG
 
}}
 
}}
 
{{Tuto Step
 
{{Tuto Step
|Step_Title=Entretien et usage
+
|Step_Title=Maintenance and Use
|Step_Content=Un filtre planté ne demande que très peu d’entretien et, s’il en est, on l’appelle plus communément jardinage.
+
|Step_Content=Planted filters require very minimal maintenance, and, if there is any, most commonly calls for gardening.
  
Pendant l’hiver la partie aérienne des plantes va se dessécher, ce qui n’empêche pas le bon fonctionnement du système racinaire et des bactéries associées. Pour l’esthétique et favoriser la reprise végétative il faut couper ces parties sèches au début du printemps : le faucardage. Ces matières sont idéales pour le compostage ou faire du mulch, autrefois le roseau servait également à couvrir le toit des chaumières.
+
During the winter, the overground part of the plants is going to dry out, but this doesn't stop the root system and its associated bacteria from functioning properly. For aesthetic purposes and to encourage vegetative recovery, it is necessary to cut  these dry parts at the start of springtime. These materials are ideal for compost or making mulch. In the past, reeds were also used to cover thatched cottage roofs.
  
Avec des toilettes à eau, les eaux usées sont beaucoup plus chargées en matières organiques qu’en filière toilettes sèches, où elles sont presque inexistantes. Cette matière va composter sur le filtre vertical et s’accumuler avec le temps. Tous les 10 à 20 ans il faut récupérer les quelques centimètres de matière organique stabilisée qui feront un très bon amendement pour le sol. Il est conseillé de faire subir un cycle de compostage supplémentaire à cette matière car elle est envahie par les rhizomes de roseau. La montée en température provoquée par la dégradation du fumier va détruire les germes.
+
With water toilets, wastewater is full of a lot more organic matter than in dry or composting toilets, in which wastewater is nearly non-existent. This material will compost on the vertical filter and accumulate with time. Every 10 to 20 years, a few centimeters of settled organic matter should be collected, which will make a very good amendment for the soil. It is recommended to undertake a supplementary compost cycle for this material because it will be overrun with reed rhizomes. The rise in temperature provoked by the degradation of the manure will destroy the germs.
  
Lors des premiers mois d’utilisation des filtres plantés, il est recommandé d’apporter du compost sur le filtre vertical, ce qui permet de lancer l’activité bactérienne et de dissimuler les « premiers voyageurs » dans la masse en compostage. Par la suite, les plantes masqueront entièrement l’arrivée des eaux usées chargées et aucune odeur ne percera le mur végétal.
+
During the first months of use of the planted filters, it is recommended to introduce compost to the vertical filter, which kicks off the bacterial activity and covers up the "first travelers" through the filter. Down the road, the plants will entirely mask the polluted wastewater inlet and no odor will be able to escape the plant wall.
  
Pour une bonne dépollution et éviter la fermentation il faut alterner l’usage des lits du filtre vertical d’une semaine à l’autre. Après chaque semaine d’utilisation, par le jeu de vannes, changer de lit de filtration.
+
For good decontamination and to avoid fermentation, alternate the usage of the vertical filter beds from one week to the next. After each week of use, change the filtration bed using the valve set.
  
=== Produits d’entretiens et toxicité phytosanitaire ===
+
=== Cleaning Products and Phytosanitary Toxicity ===
  
L’assainissement par filtre planté encourage l’utilisation de produits plus respectueux de l’environnement et c’est une bonne chose. De nombreux produits simplifiés existent pour l’entretien de la maison et l’hygiène. Plus les molécules sont simples plus elles seront facilement dégradées par les bactéries. A l’inverse les produits complexes, « huit en un », sont extrêmement difficile à réduire et polluent l’environnement.
+
Sanitation via planted filters encourages the use of products that are respectful to the environment, and that's a good thing. Many simplified products exist for house cleaning and hygiene. The simpler the molecules, the easier they are degraded by bacteria. The inverse, "8-in-1," complex products are extremely difficult to reduce, and they pollute the environment.
  
Que ce soit en assainissement collectif ou non, il est important de rappeler que l’évier ou la chasse d’eau ne sont pas les poubelles de l’habitat. Que ce soient les huiles usagées, les peinture, les solvants, les hydrocarbures, les médicaments, les produits d’entretien… tous comportent des risques important pour l’environnement car ils ne seront que peu ou pas pris en charge par le système d’assainissement, quel qu’il soit. Ces produits doivent être pris en charge spécifiquement en déchetterie au risque de les retrouver dans la nature. L’assainissement n’est pas une poubelle !
+
Whether collective sanitation or not, it is important to reaffirm that discarded sink water and the flush of the toilet are not to be the trash of the natural habitat. Whether used oils, paints, solvents, hydrocarbons (petroleum products), medicine, cleaning products...all involve serious risks for the environment, as they are addressed very little or not at all by major sanitation systems, whatever they may be. We must take responsibility for these products, specifically concerning the waste they leave and the risk of finding them in nature. Sanitation is not a waste bin!
 
}}
 
}}
 
{{Tuto Step
 
{{Tuto Step
|Step_Title=Toilettes sèches et phytoépuration
+
|Step_Title=Dry Toilets and Phyto-purificaton
|Step_Content=Les agréments ministériels ne dissocient pas la filière toilettes sèches de celle à eau. Les filtres seront donc des mêmes dimensions quel que soit le système de toilettes utilisé.
+
|Step_Content=The ministerial approvals do not differentiate dry and wet types of toilets, so the filters are of the same dimensions regardless of the toilet system being used.
  
{{Info|La forte concentration en matière organique des filières à toilettes à eau stimule l’activité bactérienne dans les filtres. Cette forte concentration en bactéries favorise la dépollution microbiologique et chimique des eaux usées. Avec une filière toilettes sèches le volume de matière organique dans les eaux sera ridicule. Pour compenser ce manque il est possible d’apporter du compost sur le filtre vertical de temps à autre.}}
+
{{Info|The high concentration of organic material in water toilets stimulates bacterial activity in the filters. This high concentration of bacteria promotes microbiological and chemical decontamination of the wastewater. With dry toilets, the volume of organic material in the water would be ridiculously low. To compensate for this deficit, one may introduce compost to the vertical filter from time to time. }}
  
Évidemment, une eau ne transportant pas les excréments est nettement moins chargée en parasites. De même, utiliser des produits d’hygiène et d’entretien simples non impactant pour l’environnement est à la portée de tous. L’utilisation de toilettes sèches permet de réduire fortement sa consommation d’eau potable et d’augmenter significativement sa production de compost si le besoin est identifié.
+
Evidently, water that is free of excrement contains considerably fewer parasites. Likewise, using simplified cleaning and hygiene products that don't impact the environment is within all of our reach. The use of dry or composting toilets can significantly decrease the consumption of potable water and significantly increase the production of compost, if there is an identified need for it.
 
}}
 
}}
 
{{Tuto Step
 
{{Tuto Step
 
|Step_Title=
 
|Step_Title=
|Step_Content='''Vous avez une minute ? Que vous souhaitiez ou non réaliser cette low-tech, votre réponse à [https://framaforms.org/votre-avis-sur-ce-tutoriel-du-low-tech-lab-1589450161 ce formulaire] nous aiderait à améliorer nos tutos. Merci d'avance pour votre aide !'''
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|Step_Content='''Do you have a minute? Interested in doing this tutorial or not, your response to [https://framaforms.org/votre-avis-sur-ce-tutoriel-du-low-tech-lab-1589450161 this survey] helps us improve our tutorials. Thank you in advance for your help!'''
  
Comme tout le travail du Low-tech Lab, '''ce tutoriel est participatif''', n'hésitez pas à ajouter les modifications qui vous semblent importantes, et à partager vos réalisations en commentaires.
+
Like all the work at Low-tech Lab, ''this tutorial is collaborative.'' Don't hesitate to add modifications that seem important, and share your results in the comments.
 
}}
 
}}
 
{{Notes
 
{{Notes
|Notes=Ce tutoriel a été réalisé par Clément CHABOT avec l'aide de Camille DUBAND et Thibaud LANCIEN sur le travail de Kevin QUENTRIC.
+
|Notes=This tutorial has been produced by Clément CHABOT with the assistance of Camille DUBAND and Thibaud LANCIEN out of the work of Kevin QUENTRIC.
  
Pour aller plus loin, nous vous recommandons la lecture du livre  "La phytoépuration" par Aymeric et Guillaume LAZARIN
 
  
Références
+
English traduction by: Katia Krussel
  
https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eutrophisation
+
To take this futher, we recommend reading the book "La Phytoépuration" by Aymeric and Guillaume LAZARIN
  
https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roseau_commun
+
References
 +
 
 +
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eutrophication
 +
 
 +
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phragmites_australis
  
 
https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phyto%C3%A9puration
 
https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phyto%C3%A9puration
 +
 +
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phytoremediation
  
 
http://www.assainissement-non-collectif.developpement-durable.gouv.fr/les-filtres-plantes-agrees-a749.html
 
http://www.assainissement-non-collectif.developpement-durable.gouv.fr/les-filtres-plantes-agrees-a749.html
  
Impact de la pollution chimique sur le vivant :
+
Impact of chemical pollution on life:
  
Widespread Sexual Disruption in Wild Fish - Susan Jobling - https://pubs.acs.org/doi/pdf/10.1021/es9710870 
+
Widespread Sexual Disruption in Wild Fish - Susan Jobling - https://pubs.acs.org/doi/pdf/10.1021/es9710870
  
 
[https://www.futura-sciences.com/planete/actualites/zoologie-feminisation-poissons-rivieres-nouveaux-produits-cause-18015/ https://www.futura-sciences.com/planete/actualites/zoologie-feminisation-poissons-rivieres-nouveaux-produits-cause-1]
 
[https://www.futura-sciences.com/planete/actualites/zoologie-feminisation-poissons-rivieres-nouveaux-produits-cause-18015/ https://www.futura-sciences.com/planete/actualites/zoologie-feminisation-poissons-rivieres-nouveaux-produits-cause-1]

Revision as of 18:53, 21 October 2020

Tutorial de avatarLow-tech Lab | Categories : Housing, Water

Introduction

The purpose of water sanitation is to transform water that has been polluted by human activity (domestic, agricultural, industrial) into water that can be assimilated into the natural environment. There are numerous water sanitation solutions from the collective level that exist as individual solutions, referred to as "autonomous." All of these are based on bacteriological activity to clean up contaminated water. Likewise, each system, at its output, returns the water to the natural environment by infiltration or by leach field. The output of this water sanitation is not potable. It is highly rich in minerals that the sun and plants may assimilate, comparable to a fertilizer. Returning it to the aquatic environment is prohibited in most cases, except when infiltration or leaching is not possible. As the aquatic environment is more sensitive than the soil, the input of nutrient-laden water involves a high risk of disrupting the natural environment, or even causing asphyxiation or eutrophication.

Types of pollution and sanitation

Water pollution is grouped into four families:

  • Organic pollution (carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus) mainly comes from substances of biological origin (excrement, urine, manure, slurry...). These particles are oxidizable, that is to say, that in the presence of oxygen, bacteria are able to degrade them and transform them into minerals.
  • Microbiological pollution is linked to organic pollution. Full of excrement, wastewater is rich in pathogenic microorganisms: viruses, bacteria, etc. which are harmful to health and the environment. High bacterial competition inhibits the development and proliferation of these parasites.
  • Chemical pollution is comprised of all the major pollutants resulting from human activity such as medicines, pesticides, hydrocarbons, metals and heavy metals. These chemicals are dangerous for the environment, causing long-lasting pollution with their high toxicity and low biodegradability. Current sanitation systems (collective or not) are very inefficient in the face of this complex and varied pollution. Pollutants therefore end up in the natural environment and are bio-accumulated. In this way, they move up the food chain and increase their concentration at each new level.
  • Suspended solids (SS) are insoluble solid particles. Over time, they clog filtration systems.

Phyto-purification - planted filters

Like all the other sanitation systems (water treatment plants, septic systems, all-water treatment systems...) phyto-purification is based on the principle of separating solids from liquids as well as the bacterial degradation of particles. Phyto-purification (or the planted filter) is based on three actors:

- Bacteria. It degrades the organic particles to render them assimilable to the natural environment.

- The substrate, comprised of gravel or aggregate, creates a habitat for the bacteria, which settle upon the surface of each material. It plays an equally important role in the root systems of the plants. With granule size going from finer to coarser, the substrate is also a filter, permitting the passage of water while blocking the bigger materials.

- The plants, with the development of their roots and the movement of of their overground parts, clean the filter which, contrary to all the other solutions, self-maintains it.

Benefits and drawbacks of Phyto-purification

Phyto-purification is an effective solution to wastewater sanitation quality. Contrary to the other systems, a plant-based filter consumes no electrical energy (brewing, foaming, pumping...) and requires no complex maintenance such as sludge drainage or re-direction to treatment plants. Self-sufficient energetically and logistically, phyto-purification is the most ecological solution for wastewater sanitation.

Phyto-purification is an extensive solution which takes up between 2 and 4m²/population equivalent (PE) -- more space than a compact filter, but less space than a sand filter. The filters are sized by the accommodation capacity of the related housing, not by the number of inhabitants, with one main room = 1 PE. For example, a house with 3 bedrooms, 1 kitchen-dining room, and 1 living room has 5 main rooms. The sanitation system must then have a capacity of 5 PE. Individual sanitation, being means-based and not end-based, would require at minimum 10m² of planted filters.

Filters that are installed as such, thanks to the diversity of the filtering plants, play a part in the aesthetic appeal of gardens. What's more, they replicate wetlands, a necessary element in the development of natural life. Numerous helpers (insects, birds, amphibeans...) return--it's a great step toward biodiversity. Phyto-purification is different from lagoon-based systems in that there is no water on the surface of the filters, but instead gravel--therefore, no risk of the proliferation of mosquitos.

However, the installation of planted filters remains a greater initial investment than that of conventional solutions (For 5 PE: approximately 10,000 € for planted filters, versus 7,000 € for an all-water septic system). The system becomes profitable at around 15 years, as it demands neither management by a professional workforce, tank drainage (there is no tank), nor energy (apart from cases requiring a sewage pump station for powering the filters, but this costs only a few euros per year where necessary).

If your housing is part of collective or public sanitation (all to the sewer), you cannot run an autonomous sanitation system [depending on country]. But don't lose hope, phyto-purification is the dominant sanitation system in France for towns of less than 1000 inhabitants. Your wastewater may already be in the roots of plants!

Building your own and approvals

To limit pollution in the natural environment, sanitation systems are subject to regulation. A performance requirement is requested by the sanitation collective (>20 PE). Individual sanitation must meet an obligation of means.

Individual phyto-purification must therefore be approved to be set up, which is to say, if one wishes to go ahead with planted filters at their home, it is necessary to commission a study and installation by a company that insures the system has received a ministerial approval.

In France, the Service Public d'Assainissement Non Collectif (SPANC) or Public Service of Non-Collective Sanitation is charged with the regulation of all the domestic wastewater sanitation systems not linked to collective networks of water sanitation.

Be that as it may, doing one's own construction is possible by calling on a certified guide who will administer soil studies and measurements and who will provide materials and all guidance necessary for a long-lasting and effective result. Self-built systems save at least 30% of costs on the global system and take the individual further in terms of control and knowledge of one's habitat.

The system presented was produced with Kévin Quentric, self-building guide affiliated with the network Aquatiris. This tutorial retraces the key milestones of an installation, providing an evaluation of the capacity of self-building and the value of the planted filters. To act in compliance with French law, it would be beneficial to connect with a company whose solutions are authorized.

===== Find in this report https://lowtechlab.org/assets/files/rapport-experimentation-habitat-low-tech-low-tech-lab.pdf an analysis of the use of this phyto-purification system, as well as 11 other low-tech experiements throughout the project In Search of a Sustainable Habitat. ====

Video overview

Materials

  • Gravel (granule size 12/20 or 20/40mm)
  • Gravel (granule size 4/8, 4/12, or 6/10 mm)
  • Washed silica sand
  • Puncture-resistant geotextile
  • EPDM sheeting
  • PVC pipes
  • 2 PVC T-connectors
  • Drains
  • PVC Glue
  • 2 manholes
  • 2 valves
  • 2 pass-through fittings

Tools

  • Shovels and some good friends, or an excavator
  • Shovel
  • Pick
  • Rake
  • Level
  • Saw
  • Utility Knife
  • Drill-Screwdriver

Step 1 - Filter Sizing

While many planted filter solutions exist, the filter proposed in this tutorial is the solution most used in collective water sanitation, customized to an "individual format." It is composed of two filters having two different roles: first a vertical filter, then a horizontal filter.

Vertical Filter

The vertical-flow filter (VF), which receives the polluted wastewater, is made up of two parallel beds, utilized alternately. The sand on the surface of the filter facilitates the passage of water while blocking the larger particles.

The water percolates across the gravel and is collected by a drain at the bottom of the filter, spending between 4 and 8 hours in this first stage. The environment not being flooded with water makes it rich in oxygen, which stimulates the aerobic bacterial activity necessary for the mineralization of the organic particles. Mineralization is a result of complex chemical reactions based on the principle of oxidation of organic compounds. It is this mineralization process that allows the transformation of an element from being non-assimilable by plants to assimilable. The simplification of of the reactions looks like: Norg => NH4+ => NO2- => NO3-.

The vertical filter measures 60 to 80 cm deep and has a surface area of 2m²/PE.

Horizontal Filter

The horizontal-flow filter (HF) collects the filtered wastewater following the vertical filter. The horizontal filter works "loaded up," meaning, the substrate is nearly always saturated in water. In absence of oxygen, anaerobic bacteria denitrify, or remove the nitrogen, from the water: they collect the oxygen they need from the molecules of nitrates, which then go on to transform into dinitrogen: N03- => N2O => N2

The horizontal-flow filter measures 2m²/PE for a depth of 60cm.

In order for the sanitation to be entirely self-sufficient and to consume no energy, we use gravity to power the two filters. The top of the vertical filter, then, must be lower than the point of collection of wastewater from the house. Likewise, the top of the horizontal filter must be lower than the bottom of the vertical filter. The installation will therefore probably take place on the lowest part of the garden. If this is not possible due to flat terrain, a condensate pump can be installed between the point of collection and the vertical filter, the latter being above ground and the horizontal filter respectively being underground.

The filters must be installed at least 3 meters away from trees, as their roots may risk puncturing the waterproof linings.


Step 2 - VF - Excavation

Depending on the characteristics of the terrain

  • Dig, build, or construct from wood the structure of the vertical filter at 90cm x 2m x [PE number in meters]
  • Cover lightly with sand to create a flat floor with a slight slope (≈1%) in the direction of the second filter.
  • For construction dug into the ground, set a root-resistant barrier down.

Step 3 - VF - Plumbing

  • Install a manhole at the top of the filter as an inlet for the polluted wastewater.
  • Inside the manhole, install a 3-way valve to distribute the water between the two beds.
  • Install a manhole at the bottom of the filter that collects the drained water.




Step 4 - VF - Waterproofing

  • Lay down a geotextile
  • Install an EPDM lining which will achieve watertightness.
  • Lay down a geotextile
  • Install a pass-through fitting on the EPDM lining in the lower end of the filter



Step 5 - VF - Drainage

Install a slotted drainpipe at the bottom of the filter with a T leading to the pass-through fitting.

  • Install a ventilation shaft on the top end of the drain and a plug on the other.
  • Fill with 20cm of gravel (granule size 10/20 mm).
  • Separate the two beds by installing a dividing wall 60cm high along the width of the VF.
  • Fill with 30cm of gravel (granule size 4/8mm).
  • Fill with 20cm of washed silica sand (granule size 0/2 mm).
  • Install the supply pipes at the outlet of the 3-way valve, one for each bed.
  • Under the outlet of the supply pipes, place a stone or a tile to ensure that the inflow of water does not carve into the substrate.

Step 6 - VF - Planting

The plants present in the vertical filter need to be very hardy and resistant to great variances in temperature between the summer and winter and times of overflow and times of stillness; equally, it must withstand contact with water full of organic matter.

The common reed (Phragmites australis), not to be confused with the cattail, is the plant most commonly used in the vertical filter. The density of planting should be 6 plants/m².

One could just as well plant Sweet flag, Marsh Marigold, Pickerel Weed, Brooklime, Lakeshore Bulrush, Broadleaf Cattail.



Step 7 - HF - Excavation

As the top of the horizontal filter must be lower than the floor of the vertical filter, this filter is carved into the earth.

  • Dig out the horizontal filter to 60cm x 2m x PE in meters.
  • Cover lightly with sand to create a flat floor with a slight slope (≈1%) in the direction of the infiltration zone.

Step 8 - HF - Plumbing

  • Install a manhole at the bottom of the filter that collects the drained water.
  • Install in the manhole a stop-start system (overflow) to keep the basin full of water. The water level needs to come to a few centimeters lower than the gravel. You will need to dig into the gravel to have access to the water.




Step 9 - HF - Waterproofing

  • Lay down a geotextile
  • Install an EPDM lining which will achieve watertightness.
  • Lay down a geotextile
  • Install a pass-through fitting on the EPDM lining in the bottom of the filter




Step 10 - HF - Drainage

?? > * Install a drain split toward the bottom in the base of the filter with a T toward the pass-through fitting.

  • Fill with 40cm of gravel (granule size 4/8mm).

Step 11 - HF - Planting

As the water in the horizontal flow filter has already been separated from some of the organic material, the purifying plants can be a bit less durable than the reeds, while remaining hardy and adapted to an aquatic environment. Generally, the benefit of the filter is that it increases biodiversity and introduces plants that flower during different periods of the year. The planting density should be 6 plants/m²

The following plants are beneficial in these planted filters:

  • Broadleaf Cattail (Typha Latifolia)
  • Branched Bur-Reed (Sparganium erectum)
  • Common Water Plantain (Alisma plantago)
  • Lakeshore Bulrush (Schoenoplectus lacustris)
  • Water Mint (Mentha Aquatica)
  • Iris (Iris pseudocorus)
  • Purple Loosestrife ( Lythrum salicaria)




Step 12 - Outlet

At the exit of the horizontal flow filter, the water is assimilable by the natural environment. The ability of the soil to purify and absorb the water is very important to its surface layer: the topsoil. The objective is for the water to slowly enter the aquatic environment (the water table or streams). The infiltration must therefore be made on the surface.

  • Install a drain connected to the outlet of the horizontal filter.
  • Fill with gravel

If the soil does not permit infiltration because it is too clayey or compact, the outlet may be a dry well or go directly into a stream. These solutions remain, however, to be used very occasionally and with great precaution since the aquatic environment is particularly sensitive to disruptions generated by the introduction of water concentrated with minerals.




Step 13 - Maintenance and Use

Planted filters require very minimal maintenance, and, if there is any, most commonly calls for gardening.

During the winter, the overground part of the plants is going to dry out, but this doesn't stop the root system and its associated bacteria from functioning properly. For aesthetic purposes and to encourage vegetative recovery, it is necessary to cut these dry parts at the start of springtime. These materials are ideal for compost or making mulch. In the past, reeds were also used to cover thatched cottage roofs.

With water toilets, wastewater is full of a lot more organic matter than in dry or composting toilets, in which wastewater is nearly non-existent. This material will compost on the vertical filter and accumulate with time. Every 10 to 20 years, a few centimeters of settled organic matter should be collected, which will make a very good amendment for the soil. It is recommended to undertake a supplementary compost cycle for this material because it will be overrun with reed rhizomes. The rise in temperature provoked by the degradation of the manure will destroy the germs.

During the first months of use of the planted filters, it is recommended to introduce compost to the vertical filter, which kicks off the bacterial activity and covers up the "first travelers" through the filter. Down the road, the plants will entirely mask the polluted wastewater inlet and no odor will be able to escape the plant wall.

For good decontamination and to avoid fermentation, alternate the usage of the vertical filter beds from one week to the next. After each week of use, change the filtration bed using the valve set.

Cleaning Products and Phytosanitary Toxicity

Sanitation via planted filters encourages the use of products that are respectful to the environment, and that's a good thing. Many simplified products exist for house cleaning and hygiene. The simpler the molecules, the easier they are degraded by bacteria. The inverse, "8-in-1," complex products are extremely difficult to reduce, and they pollute the environment.

Whether collective sanitation or not, it is important to reaffirm that discarded sink water and the flush of the toilet are not to be the trash of the natural habitat. Whether used oils, paints, solvents, hydrocarbons (petroleum products), medicine, cleaning products...all involve serious risks for the environment, as they are addressed very little or not at all by major sanitation systems, whatever they may be. We must take responsibility for these products, specifically concerning the waste they leave and the risk of finding them in nature. Sanitation is not a waste bin!

Step 14 - Dry Toilets and Phyto-purificaton

The ministerial approvals do not differentiate dry and wet types of toilets, so the filters are of the same dimensions regardless of the toilet system being used.

The high concentration of organic material in water toilets stimulates bacterial activity in the filters. This high concentration of bacteria promotes microbiological and chemical decontamination of the wastewater. With dry toilets, the volume of organic material in the water would be ridiculously low. To compensate for this deficit, one may introduce compost to the vertical filter from time to time.

Evidently, water that is free of excrement contains considerably fewer parasites. Likewise, using simplified cleaning and hygiene products that don't impact the environment is within all of our reach. The use of dry or composting toilets can significantly decrease the consumption of potable water and significantly increase the production of compost, if there is an identified need for it.

Step 15 -

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Like all the work at Low-tech Lab, this tutorial is collaborative. Don't hesitate to add modifications that seem important, and share your results in the comments.

Notes and references

This tutorial has been produced by Clément CHABOT with the assistance of Camille DUBAND and Thibaud LANCIEN out of the work of Kevin QUENTRIC.


English traduction by: Katia Krussel

To take this futher, we recommend reading the book "La Phytoépuration" by Aymeric and Guillaume LAZARIN

References

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eutrophication

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phragmites_australis

https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phyto%C3%A9puration

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phytoremediation

http://www.assainissement-non-collectif.developpement-durable.gouv.fr/les-filtres-plantes-agrees-a749.html

Impact of chemical pollution on life:

Widespread Sexual Disruption in Wild Fish - Susan Jobling - https://pubs.acs.org/doi/pdf/10.1021/es9710870

https://www.futura-sciences.com/planete/actualites/zoologie-feminisation-poissons-rivieres-nouveaux-produits-cause-1

http://www.irstea.fr/lespace-jeunesse/approfondir/lepuration-des-eaux-usees-les-avancees/debusquer-limiter-traiter-les

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