Difference between revisions of "Biodiesel/en"

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{{ {{tntn|Tuto Details}}
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{{Tuto Details
 
|Main_Picture=Biodiesel_IMG_2512.JPG
 
|Main_Picture=Biodiesel_IMG_2512.JPG
 
|Licences=Attribution (CC BY)
 
|Licences=Attribution (CC BY)
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|Cost=40
 
|Cost=40
 
|Currency=EUR (€)
 
|Currency=EUR (€)
|Tags=Biodiesel, Huile de friture usagée, Méthanol, Carburant, Transport, Diesel, Huile
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|Tags=Biodiesel, Huile de friture usagée, Méthanol, Carburant, Transport, Diesel, Huile, NomadeDesMers
 
|SourceLanguage=fr
 
|SourceLanguage=fr
 
|Language=en
 
|Language=en
 
|IsTranslation=1
 
|IsTranslation=1
 
}}
 
}}
{{ {{tntn|Introduction}}
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{{Introduction
 
|Introduction=Biodiesel is an alternative fuel to petro-sourced diesel. It can be used alone in engines or blended with petro diesel with different concentration levels. This fuel is obtained from vegetable oil or animal fat that is converted by a chemical process named "transesterification". It involves making oil react with an alcohol (methanol or ethanol) and a catalyst (sodium or potassium hydroxide) in order to obtain methyl or ethyl esters (biodiesel) and a by-product called glycerin.
 
|Introduction=Biodiesel is an alternative fuel to petro-sourced diesel. It can be used alone in engines or blended with petro diesel with different concentration levels. This fuel is obtained from vegetable oil or animal fat that is converted by a chemical process named "transesterification". It involves making oil react with an alcohol (methanol or ethanol) and a catalyst (sodium or potassium hydroxide) in order to obtain methyl or ethyl esters (biodiesel) and a by-product called glycerin.
  
 
Biodiesel can be made in various amounts. The processes described here are suitable for occasional production and small amounts. Because the process requires practice, we recommend you start by making small amounts then gradually go towards a larger scale of production.  
 
Biodiesel can be made in various amounts. The processes described here are suitable for occasional production and small amounts. Because the process requires practice, we recommend you start by making small amounts then gradually go towards a larger scale of production.  
  
"Biodiesel has man benefits, making it an interesting fuel alternative:" *It is simple to make yourself. *It can be produced at a low cost* It can be used in any conventional diesel engine. It also allows for better lubrication of the engine. *It contributes to the recycling of organic waste, such as used cooking oil that is widely used in restaurants. *It is made from vegetable oil and therefore releases only a small additional amount of CO2 into the atmosphere. It also reduces the emissions of certain harmful compounds compared to petro-diesel (carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, etc)
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"Biodiesel has man benefits, making it an interesting fuel alternative:"
 +
 
 +
*It is simple to make yourself. *It can be produced at a low cost* It can be used in any conventional diesel engine. It also allows for better lubrication of the engine. *It contributes to the recycling of organic waste, such as used cooking oil that is widely used in restaurants. *It is made from vegetable oil and therefore releases only a small additional amount of CO2 into the atmosphere. It also reduces the emissions of certain harmful compounds compared to petro-diesel (carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, etc)
  
 
  Safety measures
 
  Safety measures
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- Work near a sink and a source of running water.}}
 
- Work near a sink and a source of running water.}}
  
If you wish to reduce both your consumption and expenses on fossil fuel, there are several options available: *''[https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Huile_v%C3%A9g%C3%A9tale_carburant vegetable oil fuel]'' blended with diesel *''[https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Huile_v%C3%A9g%C3%A9tale_carburant L'huile végétale carburant]'''with engine modification *'''[https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biogazole Le Biodiesel]'' ''<u>Although this tutorial describes the third option, it's important to consider the two other options beforehand</u>The first step is therefore dedicated to the different considerations to be taken into account before choosing.
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If you wish to reduce both your consumption and expenses on fossil fuel, there are several options available:
 +
 
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*''[https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Huile_v%C3%A9g%C3%A9tale_carburant vegetable oil fuel]'' blended with diesel  
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*''[https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Huile_v%C3%A9g%C3%A9tale_carburant Vegetable oil fuel]'' with engine modification  
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*'' [https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biogazole Biodiesel]''
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''<u>Although this tutorial describes the third option, it's important to consider the two other options beforehand</u>The first step is therefore dedicated to the different considerations to be taken into account before choosing.
 
}}
 
}}
{{ {{tntn|TutoVideo}}
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{{TutoVideo
 
|VideoType=Youtube
 
|VideoType=Youtube
 
|VideoURLYoutube=https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CBKKoq_HxYA
 
|VideoURLYoutube=https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CBKKoq_HxYA
 
}}
 
}}
{{ {{tntn|Materials}}
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{{Materials
 
|Step_Picture_00=Biodiesel_IMG_2532.JPG
 
|Step_Picture_00=Biodiesel_IMG_2532.JPG
 
|Step_Picture_01=Biodiesel_IMG_2598.JPG
 
|Step_Picture_01=Biodiesel_IMG_2598.JPG
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Our approach being the most ecological possible, the oil used for making biodiesel is "used cooking oil" collected from all sorts of eating establishments. In order to collect the best sort of oil, talk to the owner of the restaurant as well as the chef so you can explain the purpose of your approach. Collecting oil without permission can be qualified as an offence. Furthermore, make sure you check the quality of the oil collected. Used oil contains free fatty acids. They appear when oil is left in the open air over a certain period of time and becomes rancid or when heated in the presence of water. Frying food (that contains water) therefore causes FFAs to appear in oil. During transesterification, these FFAs react with the catalyst (strong base) and create an unwanted soap. The soap stops the products of the reaction, biodiesel and glycerol, from separating correctly, which creates an emulsion that is difficult to work with.  
 
Our approach being the most ecological possible, the oil used for making biodiesel is "used cooking oil" collected from all sorts of eating establishments. In order to collect the best sort of oil, talk to the owner of the restaurant as well as the chef so you can explain the purpose of your approach. Collecting oil without permission can be qualified as an offence. Furthermore, make sure you check the quality of the oil collected. Used oil contains free fatty acids. They appear when oil is left in the open air over a certain period of time and becomes rancid or when heated in the presence of water. Frying food (that contains water) therefore causes FFAs to appear in oil. During transesterification, these FFAs react with the catalyst (strong base) and create an unwanted soap. The soap stops the products of the reaction, biodiesel and glycerol, from separating correctly, which creates an emulsion that is difficult to work with.  
  
Plus une huile de friture est utilisée, plus sa concentration en AGL augmente et plus elle brunit. '''Eviter donc au maximum de récupérer des huiles âgées et brunies'''. Plus la qualité de l’huile sera bonne, plus le procédé de transformation sera simple. 
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The more the cooking oil is used, the more the concentration in FFAs increases and becomes browner. "Therefore, try to avoid collecting old, brown oil". The better the quality of the oil is, the easier the converting process will be.
  
Les huiles à '''privilégier '''dans le cadre de la fabrication de biodiesel sont les huiles végétales au pH neutre ou presque comme '''les huiles de colza, maïs ou tournesol'''. Ces huiles ont un point de fusion bas, ce qui signifie qu’elles ne se solidifient pas si les températures chutent en hiver (les températures de fusion de ces huiles sont de -10°C à -2°C pour le colza, -15°C pour le tournesol).  
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When making biodiesel, "prefer" using oil such as vegetable oil with a neutral pH or nearly neutral such as "rapeseed, corn oil or sunflower oil". These oils have a low freezing point, which means they don't solidify if temperatures drop in winter (freezing temperatures for these oils range from -10°C to -2°C for rapeseed, -15°C for sunflower).  
  
Il est nécessaire d’'''éviter les huiles d’arachide, coco, palme ou les graisses animales''' car elles se solidifient à des températures trop élevées (>10°C), même si le biodiesel à un point de fusion inférieur à l’huile qui est à son origine. L’huile d’olive est aussi à proscrire car trop acide, ces acides peuvent interférer pendant la réaction de création du biodiesel.
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<div class="mw-translate-fuzzy">
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"Avoid peanut, coconut and palm oil or animal fats" because the temperatures at which they solidify are too high (>10°C), even if biodiesel has a lower freezing point than the oil it originates from. Also ban olive oil that is too acidic, these acids could interfere during the reaction in the creating of biodiesel.
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</div>
  
'''1.2 Méthanol'''
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''1.2 Methanol''
  
Le méthanol, ou alcool de bois, était autrefois obtenu par pyrolyse du bois. Il est aujourd’hui synthétisé à partir de gaz naturel et est utilisé principalement comme antigel pour le liquide de refroidissement, comme solvant pour la synthèse d’autres produits chimiques ou comme carburant pour la course (dragster, modélisme). On peut s'en procurer chez des fournisseurs spécialisés de produits chimiques, certains grands magasins de bricolage, certains garages.
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Methanol, or wood alcohol, used to be obtained by wood pyrolysis. Nowadays, it is synthesized from natural gas and is mainly used as an antifreeze for coolants, as a solvent for the synthesis of other chemicals or as fuel in the racing field (dragsters, model engines). It can be purchased through suppliers who specialize in chemicals, some DIY stores and garages.
  
{{Info|Pour la fabrication de biodiesel, il est important de récupérer du méthanol quasiment pur (99%).}}
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{{Info|To make biodiesel, it's important you use methanol that's practically pure (99%).}}
  
{{Warning|Le méthanol est très inflammable et peut brûler ou exploser à la moindre étincelle. Il est aussi toxique et peut rendre aveugle s’il est inhalé ou ingéré.}}
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{{Warning|It's very flammable and the slightest spark could cause burns or an explosion. It is also toxic and can cause blindness if inhaled or ingested.}}
  
'''1.3 Catalyseur'''
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''1.3 Catalyst''
  
Pour le catalyseur, on peut utiliser l'hydroxyde de sodium (NaOH, soude caustique) ou d'hydroxyde de potassium (KOH, potasse caustique). Ils sont tous deux corrosifs et fortement basiques. Ces produits chimiques, assez communs, se trouvent dans les magasins de bricolage, en ligne ou chez les fournisseurs de produits chimiques. Le KOH et le NaOH sont tous deux hygroscopiques, ce qui signifie qu'ils absorbent rapidement l'humidité de l'atmosphère. L'eau en fait des catalyseurs moins efficaces : toujours les conserver dans des contenants scellés et hermétiques.  
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Either sodium hydroxide (NaOH, caustic soda) or potassium hydroxide (KOH, caustic potash) can be used as a catalyst. They are both corrosive and highly basic. These chemicals are quite common and can be found in DIY stores, on line or through chemical suppliers. KOH and NaOH are both hygroscopic, which means they absorb the humidity in the atmosphere quickly. They become less efficient catalysts in the presence of water: always keep them in sealed, airtight containers.  
  
'''NaOH vs KOH, des propriétés différentes.'''
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''NaOH vs KOH, different properties."
  
· L’hydroxyde de sodium (NaOH) est moins cher et communément utilisé pour la fabrication de biodiesel à petite échelle. Par contre, l’hydroxyde de sodium (NaOH) contamine l’eau de lavage du biodiesel et ne doit pas être déversée dans la nature. Il est donc déconseillé de l’utiliser si vous n’avez de moyen de retraitement.
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* Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) is less expensive and commonly used to make biodiesel on a small scale. However, sodium hydroxide (NaOH) contaminates the water used for cleaning biodiesel and must not be disposed of in nature. We therefore suggest you don't use it if you cannot ensure water treatment.
  
· L’hydroxyde de potassium (KOH) gagne en popularité grâce à ces propriétés de catalyse supérieures. L’hydroxyde potassium (KOH) se dissout plus facilement dans le méthanol et est moins sensible à l’eau. De plus, la glycérine obtenue au cours de la réaction reste liquide et peut être ajoutée avec plus de sécurité dans du compost ou utilisée en petite quantité comme complément pour l’alimentation animale.
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* Potassium hydroxide (KOH) having higher catalysis properties, is gaining in popularity. Potassium hydroxide (KOH) dissolves easier in methanol and is less sensitive to water. Furthermore, the glycerin obtained through the reaction remains liquid and can be added to compost with more safety or used in small amounts as a supplement for animal feed.
|Tools='''Transestérification'''
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|Tools=''Transesterification''
* Huile végétale usagée
 
{{Info|Pour les premières tentatives, il est recommandé d'essayer avec de faible quantité et de l'huile végétale neuve}} 
 
* 250 mL de méthanol / litre d'huile 
 
* <u>Si vous utilisez de l’huile neuve</u>: 5,5g de NaOH ou 7g de KOH / litre d'huile.    
 
* <u>Si vous utilisez de l’huile usagée</u> : Calculez la masse de catalyseur à ajouter lors de l’étape de titrage
 
{{Info|Le KOH est conseillé pour les débutants. Toujours conserver ces produits dans un contenant scellé et hermétique.}}
 
* 1 grand conteneur propre et sec avec drain ou robinet pour réaliser la réaction 
 
{{Info|Nous conseillons fortement d'utiliser un bidon en forme de silot comme celui présenter sur la photo. Celui facilitera grandement les différentes étapes de drainage qui peuvent s'avérer délicates et chronophages sans ce système.}}
 
  
* · 1 pompe submersible pour réaliser le mélange dans le bidon    
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* Used vegetable oil {{For information| For your first attempts, we recommend you try with just a small amount and use new vegetable oil}}    
* . 1 plaque ou résistance chauffante   
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* · 1 sonde de température 
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* 250 mL of methanol/ litre of oil *<u> If you are using new oil </u>: 5,5g of NaOH or 7g of KOH / litre of oil. *<u>If you are using used oil</u>: Calculate the catalyst mass that must be added when you get to the titration stage. {{For information| we recommend KOH for beginners. Always keep these products in a sealed, airtight container.}}
* · 1 balance de précision 
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* · 1 entonnoir
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<div class="mw-translate-fuzzy">
* · 1 grand bocal fermé en verre ou une cuve en acier inox pour le mélange du méthanol et du catalyseur
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.}} * 1 clean, dry container with a drain tube or a tap for when you want to carry out the reaction {{for information| we highly recommend using a silo shaped canister such as the one shown on the photo. This will make all the different draining stages a lot easier. Without this system, it can turn out to be quite tricky and time consuming.}}
* · 1 verre doseur en verre pour le dosage du méthanol
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</div>
* · Des gants en caoutchouc
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* · Des lunettes de sécurité
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* • 1 submersible pump so you can do the blending in the canister * - 1 one hot plate or heating resistor * - 1 temperature sensor * - 1 precision balance * - 1 funnel * - 1 big glass jar shut or a stainless steel tank for the blending of the methanol and the catalyst * - 1 measuring glass for the dosage of methanol* - rubber gloves * - safety glasses *
'''Filtration'''
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* · 1 bidon d’huile neuve
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"Filtration"
* · 1 bidon d’huile vide et propre
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* · 1 entonnoir
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- 1 canister of new oil * - 1 clean and empty oil canister * - 1 funnel * - 1 cotton sheet/ 1 sock * - a 1 to 5µm filter bag"
* · 1 drap en coton / 1 chaussette
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* · 1 poche filtrante de 1 à 5µm
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"Titration"
'''Titrage'''
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* · 10mL d’alcool isopropylique ou isopropanol.  
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* - 10ml of isopropyl alcohol or isopropanol. * -1ml of your used oil * - 2-3 drops of phenolphthalein (indicator) * - 1L [https://fr.wikihow.com/fabriquer-de-l%27eau-distill%C3%A9e of distilled water] * - 1g of catalyst, sodium hydroxide NaOH or potassium hydroxide KOH. {{Warning| Always keep these products in a sealed, airtight container}}
* · 1mL de votre huile usagée
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* · 2-3 gouttes de phénolphtaléine (indicateur)
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* - 1 scale* - 1 small container/glass jar * - 3 measuring cylinders/tubes * - Two 1mL graduated syringes or cruets. Please take note that one syringe is for the oil and the other one is for the soda-water blend. * - Rubber gloves * - Safety glasses- Breathing mask
* · 1L [https://fr.wikihow.com/fabriquer-de-l%27eau-distill%C3%A9e d’eau distillée]
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* · 1g de catalyseur, hydroxyde de sodium NaOH ou hydroxyde de potassium KOH.
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"distillation of glycerol"
{{Warning|Toujours conservé ces produits dans un contenant scellé et hermétique }}
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* · 1 balance
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* - 1 pressure cooker * a 5m copper pipe * a 50cm heat-resistant flexible tube (silicone, Teflon) * Conventional pipe clamps for plumbing
* · 1 récipient / bocal en verre
 
* · 3 éprouvettes graduées
 
* · Deux seringues ou burettes graduées d'1 mL. Notez qu'une seringue est pour l'huile et l'autre pour le mélange soude-eau.  
 
* · Des gants en caoutchouc
 
* · Des lunettes de sécurité
 
* · Masque respiratoire
 
'''Distillation du glycérol'''
 
* 1 cocotte minute
 
* 5 m de tuyau de cuivre
 
* 50 cm de tuyau souple résistant à la chaleur (silicone, téflon)
 
* Colliers de serrage de plomberie
 
 
}}
 
}}
{{ {{tntn|Tuto Step}}
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{{Tuto Step
|Step_Title=Identifier son besoin
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|Step_Title=Identify your needs
|Step_Content=Il existe au moins trois façons de faire fonctionner un moteur diesel avec de l'huile végétale:
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|Step_Content=There are at least three ways of making a diesel engine run with vegetable oil:
*la mélanger avec du pétro-diesel, avec un solvant, ou avec de l'essence;
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*l'utiliser telle qu'elle est - habituellement appelée [https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Huile_v%C3%A9g%C3%A9tale_carburant huile végétale carburant (HVC, SVO en anglais)] ou huile végétale recyclée (HVR, WVO en anglais) ;
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*blending it with petro-diesel, a solvent or petrol; *using it as it is - usually called [https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Huile_v%C3%A9g%C3%A9tale_carburant huile végétale carburant (HVC, SVO in English)] or recycled vegetable oil (HVR, WVO in English); *converting it into biodiesel.
*la convertir en biodiesel.
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Les deux premières méthodes ont l'air plus faciles, mais comme souvent, ce n'est pas si simple.
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The two first methods look easy, but as for many things, it isn’t that simple.
  
'''1. Les mélanges'''
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''1. Blends"
  
L'huile végétale est beaucoup plus visqueuse (plus épaisse) que le pétrodiesel ou le biodiesel. Le but de mélanger ou de mixer l'HVC avec d'autres carburants ou solvants est d'abaisser la viscosité pour la rendre plus liquide, de sorte qu'elle s'écoule plus facilement à travers le circuit de carburant, jusqu'à la chambre de combustion. Cependant ce n'est pas le seul problème avec l'utilisation de l'HVC. Elle présente des propriétés chimiques et des caractéristiques de combustion différentes du pétro-diesel avec lequel les moteurs diesel et leurs circuits de carburant sont conçus pour être utilisés. Les moteurs diesel, en particulier les plus modernes, sont des machines de haute technologie avec des besoins précis en carburant (voir [http://journeytoforever.org/biodiesel_TDI.html la controverse TDI-SVO]).
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Vegetable oil is a lot more viscous (thicker) than petro-diesel or biodiesel The purpose of blending or mixing SVOs with other fuels or solvents is to reduce the viscosity to make it thinner, so it will flow easier through the fuel system to the combustion chamber. However, this is not the only problem when using SVOs. Its chemical properties and combustion characteristics are different to those of petro-diesel, for which diesel engines and their fuel systems are designed for. Diesel engines, especially the most modern ones, are high-tech machines with specific fuel needs (see [http://journeytoforever.org/biodiesel_TDI.html la controverse TDI-SVO]).
  
Les gens utilisent divers mélanges, allant de 10% HVC et 90% pétro-diesel à 90% HVC et 10% pétro-diesel. Certaines personnes l'utilisent tel quel, sans préchauffer (ce qui rend l'huile végétale beaucoup moins visqueuse). Certains utilisent même 100% d'HVC sans préchauffer. Ils n'ont souvent pas conscience des effets à long terme sur le moteur
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People use various blends, ranging from 10% SVO and 90% petro-diesel to 90% SVO and 10% petro-diesel. Some people use it as it is, without preheating (which makes the vegetable oil a lot less viscous). Some even use 100% SVO without preheating. They often don't realize the long term effects on the engine
  
Vous pourriez vous en sortir l'été avec quelque chose comme un vieux Mercedes-Benz diesel à 5 ​​cylindres de plus de 80 ans, qui est un moteur très résistant et tolérant. Il n'appréciera pas, mais vous ne le détruirez probablement pas. Sinon, ce n'est pas une bonne idée.
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You might manage it during the summer period with something like an old 5 cylinder Mercedes-Benz that's over 80 years old, that has a very resistant and tolerant engine. It won't like it but you probably won't destroy the engine. Otherwise, it probably isn't a good idea.
  
Ce n'est pas garanti, mais l'utilisation d'un mélange d'huile végétale allant jusqu'à 20% de bonne qualité avec 80% de pétrodiesel est dite assez sûre pour les vieux diesels, surtout en été.
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I can't guarantee it but using a blend containing up to 20% of good quality vegetable oil with 80% of petro-diesel is known to be quite safe for old diesels, especially in summer.
  
Si vous mélangez l'HVC avec du pétro-diesel, vous utiliserez toujours des combustibles fossiles - vous serez alors plus propres que la moyenne, mais toujours pas assez pour beaucoup. Pourtant, pour chaque litre d'HVC que vous utilisez, c'est un litre de carburant fossile économisé, et beaucoup moins de [http://journeytoforever.org/biodiesel.html#greenhouse dioxyde de carbone] émis.
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If you blend SVO with petro-diesel, you'll still be using fossil fuels - so you'll be cleaner than average, but still not enough for others. Yet, for each litre of SVO you use, you save one litre of fossil fuel and lower carbon dioxide emissions. [http://journeytoforever.org/biodiesel.html#greenhouse dioxyde de carbone]
  
Cependant, pour le faire correctement et en toute sécurité toute l'année, vous aurez besoin de ce qui équivaut à un système HVC approprié avec au moins un préchauffage du carburant (voir ci-dessous). Et dans ce cas, il n'y a pas besoin de mélanges, vous pouvez simplement utiliser 100% d'HVC.
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However, in order to do it correctly and safely all year round, you will need a system suitable for SVO, including a preheating fuel system at the least (see below) and in that case, blending isn't needed, you can simply use 100% SVO.
  
Enfin, les mélanges d'HVC avec divers solvants, comme la térébenthine minérale (white spirit), ou avec divers ingrédients «secrets» tels que le naphtalène et le xylol, ou avec de l'essence sans plomb, sont expérimentaux au mieux, et on ne connaît rien des effets de ces additifs sur les caractéristiques de combustion du carburant ou leurs effets à long terme sur le moteur. Cette solution est donc fortement déconseillée : utilisez de tels mélanges à vos risques et périls.
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Lastly, blending SVOs with other solvents like mineral turpentine (white spirit) or other "secret" ingredients such as naphthalene or xylol or with unleaded petrol are only experimental processes at this point in time and the effects of these additives on the characteristics of fuel combustion or their long term effects on the engine remain unknown. We highly recommend you don't choose this kind of solution: use such blends at your own risk.
  
'''2. Huile végétale carburant avec modification du moteur'''
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''2. Straight vegetable oil with engine modification"
  
Les systèmes directs d'alimentation en huile végétale (HVC) peuvent être une option propre, efficace et économique.
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Direct SVO fuel systems can be a clean, efficient and economical option.
  
Contrairement au biodiesel, vous devez modifier le moteur pour utiliser l'HVC. La meilleure façon est de se procurer un [http://journeytoforever.org/biodiesel_svo.html#1tank système professionnel SVO à un seul réservoir] avec des injecteurs et des bouchons de protection optimisés pour l'huile végétale, ainsi que le chauffage du carburant. Avec le [http://journeytoforever.org/biodiesel_svo.html#Elsbett système Elsbett], vous pouvez utiliser du pétro-diesel, du biodiesel ou du HVC, selon n'importe quelle combinaison. Démarrez et roulez, éteignez et arrêtez-vous, comme avec n'importe quelle voiture.
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Unlike biodiesel, you will need to modify your engine so you can use SVO. The best way to get one is to purchase a [professional single-tank SVO system http://journeytoforever.org/biodiesel_svo.html#1tank] with optimized injector nozzles, glow-plugs for vegetable oil as well as a fuel pre-heating system. With this [http://journeytoforever.org/biodiesel_svo.html#Elsbett system], you can use petro-diesel, biodiesel or SVO, with any combination you like. Start up and go, turn off and stop, just like any other car.
  
Il existe également des systèmes HVC à deux réservoirs qui préchauffent l'huile pour la rendre moins visqueuse. Vous devez démarrer le moteur avec le pétro-diesel ordinaire (ou le biodiesel) dans un réservoir, puis passer à l'HVC dans l'autre réservoir lorsque l'huile végétale est suffisamment chaude (donc assez liquide) et revenir au pétro-diesel avant d'arrêter le moteur, ou vous boucherez les injecteurs.
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There are other SVO systems with two tanks that preheat the oil to make it less viscous. You must start your engine up with ordinary petro-diesel ( or biodiesel) in the tank, then switch to SVO in the other tank once the vegetable oil is hot enough (so quite liquid) then come back to petro-diesel before turning the engine off, or you'll clog the injectors.
  
De nombreuses informations sur les systèmes d'HVC sont disponibles [http://journeytoforever.org/biodiesel_svo.html ici].
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You can find lots of information about SVO systems on [http://journeytoforever.org/biodiesel_svo.html here].
  
'''3. Biodiesel ou HVC ?'''
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''3 Biodiesel or SVO?"
  
Le biodiesel présente des avantages évidents sur SVO:
+
Biodiesel has many obvious advantages over SVO:
*Il fonctionne dans n'importe quel diesel, sans aucune conversion ou modification du moteur ou du système d'alimentation - il suffit de le mettre dans le réservoir et démarrer.
 
*Il a également de meilleures propriétés en temps froid que l'HVC (mais pas aussi bonnes que le pétro-diesel - voir [http://journeytoforever.org/biodiesel_winter.html ici] pour l'utilisation du biodiesel en hiver).
 
*Contrairement à l'HVC, il est soutenu par de nombreux tests sur le long terme dans de nombreux pays, avec des millions de kilomètres de route parcourus.
 
Le biodiesel est un carburant de remplacement propre, sûr, prêt à l'emploi, tandis que de nombreux systèmes HVC sont encore expérimentaux et doivent être développés.
 
  
D'un autre côté, le biodiesel peut être plus coûteux, en fonction de la quantité que vous produisez, de ce que vous obtenez et de la comparaison avec de l'huile ou du pétrole neuf. Et contrairement à l'HVC, il nécessite un traitement (l'objet de ce tutoriel). Mais la communauté, qui s'étend de plus en plus rapidement, de producteurs de biodiesel ne se préoccupe pas de cela - ils font une fournée chaque semaine ou chaque mois et ils s'y habituent rapidement. Beaucoup le font depuis des années.
+
*It works in any diesel car, without any conversion or modification of the engine or fuel system - all you need to do is put it in the tank and start your car up. *It also has better properties than SVO when the weather is cold (but not as good as those of petro-diesel-see [http://journeytoforever.org/biodiesel_winter.html here] for the use of biodiesel in winter). *Unlike SVO, many tests have been carried out on the long term in many countries, covering millions of kilometres.
  
Quoi qu'il en soit, vous devez également traiter l'HVC, en particulier l'HVR, que beaucoup de personnes utilisent avec des systèmes HVC parce qu'elles sont bon marché voire gratuites. Avec l'HVR, les particules alimentaires et les impuretés et l'eau doivent être enlevées, et elle devrait également être désacidifiée. Les producteurs de biodiesel pensent : «Si je dois faire tout ça, autant faire du biodiesel à la place». Mais les défenseurs de l'HVC soutiendront que c'est beaucoup moins de traitement que le biodiesel.
+
Biodiesel is a clean replacement fuel, safe and ready to use, whereas many SVO systems are still experimental and need to be developed.
  
Les goûts et les couleurs... à vous de juger !
+
On the other hand, biodiesel can be more expensive, depending on the amount you produce, what you get from it and the comparison with oil or new petrol. And unlike SVO, it requires treatment. (The purpose of this tutorial). But the community of biodiesel producers that is continuously expanding, doesn't seem too concerned about the matter - they do their weekly or monthly produce and become familiar with the process quite quickly. Many have been doing so for many years.
  
<u>''Ci-contre un tableau résumant les principales différences entre faire du biodiesel et modifier son moteur pour utiliser directement de l'HVC. SVO/WVO sont les correspondances anglophones de HVC/HVR.''</u>
+
Anyhow, SVO must also be treated, especially WVO that many people use with SVO systems because they are cheap and sometimes even free. When using WVO, food particles, impurities and water must be removed from it. It will also need to be deacidified. Biodiesel producers think: "If I need to do all that, I might as well make biodiesel instead". But SVO supporters will claim it requires a lot less treatment than biodiesel.
  
'''$ Considérations financières : $'''
+
Everyone's taste is different....the decision is yours!
  
Un français consomme en moyenne : 1,3[€/L]*4/100[L/km]*19000[km/an] = 988 €/an Soit environ 1000 € par an de diesel.
+
<u>''On the table opposite is a summary of the main differences between making biodiesel and modifying your engine to use SVO directly. SVO/WVO are the English-speaking equivalences of HVC/HVR in French.''</u>
  
Le biodiesel coûte entre 0,5 et 1 € par litre à produire à partir d'huile recyclée, soit entre 380 et 760 € par an. Un bon système de traitement adapté à ce volume peut être construit pour environ 100€. Celui-ci est donc remboursé en quelques mois.
+
''$ Financial considerations: $''
  
Un système pour HVC coûte entre 900 et 1800 €. Si l'HVC est gratuite, celui-ci sera donc remboursé en 1 à 2 ans.
+
On average, a French person consumes: 1,3[€/L]*4/100[L/km]*19000[km/an] = 988 €/year, representing roughly 1000€ per year on diesel.
 +
 
 +
Biodiesel costs between 0.5€ and 1€ per litre to produce from recycled oil, representing between 380 and 760€ per year. A good treatment system, adapted to this production volume can be built for roughly 100€. The cost is therefore recovered within a few months.
 +
 
 +
A SVO system costs between 900 and 1800€. If SVO is free, the cost will therefore be recovered within 1 to 2 years.
 
|Step_Picture_00=Biodiesel_800px-Transformer_de_l_huile_en_biodiesel_-_galop_d_essai_Screenshot_from_2017-06-16_11-56-53.png
 
|Step_Picture_00=Biodiesel_800px-Transformer_de_l_huile_en_biodiesel_-_galop_d_essai_Screenshot_from_2017-06-16_11-56-53.png
 
}}
 
}}
{{ {{tntn|Tuto Step}}
+
{{Tuto Step
 
|Step_Title=Filtration
 
|Step_Title=Filtration
|Step_Content=Avant de pouvoir être transformée, l’huile usagée doit tout d’abord être filtrée pour la nettoyer des éventuels résidus alimentaires (frites, beignets…). Il est conseillé de laisser l’huile décanter pendant quelques jours. Filtrer une première fois l’huile pour se débarrasser des particules les plus grosses (ex: drap en coton doublé, chaussette…). Puis verser l’huile dans une poche de filtration d'au maximum 5µm (le plus fin sera le mieux) au-dessus d’un bidon propre prévu à cet effet.
+
|Step_Content=Before it can be converted, the used oil must be filtered first in order to remove any possible food residues (fries, doughnuts...). We recommend you let the oil settle for a few days. An initial filtration must be carried out to get rid of the biggest particles (e.g.: with a double cotton sheet or a sock...). Then pour the oil into a 5µm maximum filter bag (the finer the better) above the clean canister, prepared beforehand.
 
|Step_Picture_00=Biodiesel_Huile_3.jpg
 
|Step_Picture_00=Biodiesel_Huile_3.jpg
 
}}
 
}}
{{ {{tntn|Tuto Step}}
+
{{Tuto Step
|Step_Title=Titrage de l’huile (seulement pour les huiles usagées)
+
|Step_Title=Oil titration (for used oil only)*
|Step_Content=- Peser précisément 1g de catalyseur et le dissoudre dans 1L d’eau distillée
+
|Step_Content=- Weigh precisely 1g of catalyst and dissolve it in 1L of distilled water.
  
{{Warning|Toujours ajouter le catalyseur dans l'eau. Ne pas verser l'eau sur le catalyseur. }}
+
{{Warning| Always add the catalyst to water. Never pour water on to the catalyst.}}
  
- Dans un récipient gradué en verre, mesurer 10 mL d’isopropanol.
+
- In a glass measuring container, measure 10mL of isopropanol.
  
- Prélever 1 mL de votre huile à tester à l’aide d’une seringue graduée et ajouter à l’isopropanol.
+
- Take 1mL of your testing oil with a graduated syringe and add it to the isopropanol.
  
- Ajouter 3 gouttes de phénolphtaléine au mélange.
+
- Add 3 drops of phenolphthalein to the blend.
  
- Bien remuer le mélange, si possible avec un agitateur magnétique.
+
- Stir the blend thoroughly, with a magnetic stirrer if possible.
  
- Remplir la burette graduée, préalablement rincée à l’eau distillée, de 10 mL du mélange eau distillée/catalyseur.  
+
- Fill the graduated cruet up with 10mL of the distilled water/catalyst blend, make sure you rinse the cruet with distilled water before using.  
  
-  Ajouter la solution eau distillée-catalyseur au mélange, goutte par goutte, tout en remuant continuellement.
+
- Add the distilled water-catalyst to the blend, drop by drop, while stirring continuously.
  
- Continuer l’ajout de solution titrante peu à peu jusqu’au point de virage. Le mélange devient de couleur rose foncé. Le changement de couleur doit persister pendant 20 secondes.  
+
- Continue to gradually add the titrant until the end point is obtained. The blend becomes a dark pink colour. The colour change should last 20 seconds.  
  
- Relever exactement le volume d’eau distillée/catalyseur (V<sub>titrage</sub>) utilisée pour neutraliser l’acidité de l’huile.
+
- Take note of the exact volume of distilled water/catalyst (V<sub>titration</sub>) used to neutralize the acidity of the oil.
  
- Refaire un deuxième essai et calculer la moyenne des essais pour plus de précision.
+
- Do a second test and calculate the average of your tests for more precision.
  
- Utiliser cette information pour connaître la quantité de catalyseur à ajouter dans la réaction suivant la formule : (Pour comprendre son obtention voir l'ANNEXE 2 de [http://carburerauxalgues.com/site/download/download_file_st/ActiviteI_ELEVES/pdf ce document])
+
<div class="mw-translate-fuzzy">
 +
- Use this information to find out the amount of catalyst you need to add to the reaction following this formula: (To understand more about the formula, see ANNEX 2 of [http://carburerauxalgues.com/site/download/download_file_st/ActiviteI_ELEVES/pdf this document]
 +
</div>
  
'''Masse catalyseur requise (g) = (B+ V<sub>titrage</sub>(mL)) x Volume huile (L)'''
+
"Catalyst mass required (g) = (B+ V<sub>titration</sub> (mL)) x Volume of oil (L)''
  
Avec :
+
With:
  
V<sub>titrage</sub> : volume de solution titrante ajoutée pour neutraliser l'acidité de l'huile (mL)
+
V<sub>titration</sub>: volume of titrant added to neutralize the acidity of the oil (mL)
  
: la quantité de base (catalyseur) nécessaire pour la réaction avec de l’huile vierge.
+
B: base quantity (catalyst) required for the reaction with unused oil.
  
 
B (KOH) = 7.0 g/L
 
B (KOH) = 7.0 g/L
Line 221: Line 216:
 
B (NaOH) = 5.5 g/L
 
B (NaOH) = 5.5 g/L
  
''' '''
+
{{Info|1=For example: For 50L of oil with KOH and a titration of 3mL, we get: m(NaOH) = (7+3) x 50 = 500g}}
{{Info|1=Par exemple : Pour 50L d’huile avec du KOH et un titrage à 3mL, on a : m(NaOH) = (7+3) x 50 = 500g}}
 
 
|Step_Picture_00=Biodiesel_IMG_2545.JPG
 
|Step_Picture_00=Biodiesel_IMG_2545.JPG
 
|Step_Picture_01=Biodiesel_IMG_2550.JPG
 
|Step_Picture_01=Biodiesel_IMG_2550.JPG
Line 230: Line 224:
 
|Step_Picture_05=Biodiesel_IMG_2581.JPG
 
|Step_Picture_05=Biodiesel_IMG_2581.JPG
 
}}
 
}}
{{ {{tntn|Tuto Step}}
+
{{Tuto Step
|Step_Title=Transestérification
+
|Step_Title=Transesterification
|Step_Content=- Faire chauffer l’huile à 60°C et la maintenir à cette température.  
+
|Step_Content=- Heat the oil at 60°C and maintain at this temperature.  
  
{{Warning|Attention à ne pas dépasser cette température ! Le méthanol à un point de fusion à 65°C et il y a risque de surpression due à la production de vapeur de méthanol dans le pot fermé.}}
+
<div class="mw-translate-fuzzy">
 +
{{Warning| Make sure you don't exceed this temperature! The melting point of methanol is 65°C and overpressure could occur due to the production of methanol vapour in the closed container.}}
 +
</div>
  
- Verser le méthanol dans un récipient en verre.  
+
- Pour the methanol into the glass container.  
  
{{Warning|Ne pas verser dans un récipient en plastique ou en aluminium, ils pourraient se dissoudre. Assurer vous d’effectuer toutes ces opérations dans un endroit bien aéré. On rappelle que les vapeurs de méthanol sont toxiques.}}
+
{{Warning| Do not pour into a plastic or aluminium container, it could dissolve. Make sure all these operations are carried out in a well-ventilated area. As a reminder, methanol vapours are toxic.}}
  
- Peser la quantité de soude définie au cours de l’étape précédente si vous utilisez de l’huile usagée et ajouter au méthanol.
+
- Weigh the amount of soda calculated during the previous stage if using used oil and add to the methanol.
  
{{Warning|Effectuer cette opération avec des manches longues, des lunettes et un masque de sécurité. Les vapeurs sont très corrosives.}}
+
{{Warning| Long sleeves, glasses and a safety mask are required for this operation. Vapours are very corrosive.}}
  
- Remuer et laisser se dissoudre entièrement le catalyseur dans le méthanol. Cela prend environ 2min. Encore une fois, attention : le mélange se dégrade rapidement. Procéder à l’étape suivante dès que le mélange catalyseur/méthanol est homogène.
+
- Stir and let the catalyst dissolve completely in the methanol. This takes roughly 2 minutes. And once again, be careful: the blend deteriorates quickly. Carry on with the next stage as soon as the catalyst/methanol blend is homogeneous.
  
- Ajouter le mélange catalyseur/méthanol à l’huile chaude (60°C). Laisser les éléments se mélanger pendant plusieurs heures. Lors de la réaction, deux produis sont formés : le biodiesel et le glycérol. Le biodiesel étant moins dense, il forme la couche supérieure.
+
<div class="mw-translate-fuzzy">
 +
- Add the catalyst/methanol blend to the hot oil (60°C). Leave the elements to blend together for several hours. Two products are formed from this reaction; biodiesel and glycerol. Biodiesel being less dense, it forms the top layer.
 +
</div>
  
- Attendre 24 heures ou plus avant de procéder à l’étape suivante.
+
-Wait 24 hours or more before carrying out the next stage.
 
|Step_Picture_00=Biodiesel_IMG_2590.JPG
 
|Step_Picture_00=Biodiesel_IMG_2590.JPG
 
|Step_Picture_01=Biodiesel_IMG_2549.JPG
 
|Step_Picture_01=Biodiesel_IMG_2549.JPG
 
}}
 
}}
{{ {{tntn|Tuto Step}}
+
{{Tuto Step
|Step_Title=Séparation du glycérol
+
|Step_Title=Separating the glycerol.
|Step_Content=Drainer le glycérol par le bas de la cuve dans un nouveau contenant. Faite attention à ce qui ne reste plus de glycérine dans le biodiesel. Conserver le glycérol obtenu.
+
|Step_Content=Drain off the glycerol from the bottom of the tank into a new container. Make sure there is no glycerin left in the biodiesel. Keep the glycerol aside.
 
|Step_Picture_00=Biodiesel_IMG_2506.JPG
 
|Step_Picture_00=Biodiesel_IMG_2506.JPG
 
|Step_Picture_01=Biodiesel_IMG_2512.JPG
 
|Step_Picture_01=Biodiesel_IMG_2512.JPG
 
|Step_Picture_02=Biodiesel_IMG_2515.JPG
 
|Step_Picture_02=Biodiesel_IMG_2515.JPG
 
}}
 
}}
{{ {{tntn|Tuto Step}}
+
{{Tuto Step
|Step_Title=Lavage et séchage du biodiesel
+
|Step_Title=The washing and drying of biodiesel.
|Step_Content=- Ajouter très lentement 20 % du volume de biodiesel en solution de lavage pour éviter la formation de savon et attendre 10 min. Drainer l’eau de lavage.
+
|Step_Content=-Slowly add the washing solution representing the equivalent of 20% the volume of biodiesel, to avoid the formation of soap and wait 10 minutes. Drain off the washing water.
  
{{Idea|Il peut être intéressant d'utiliser une brumisateur pour pulvériser de fines gouttelettes.}}
+
<div class="mw-translate-fuzzy">
 +
{{Ideal| Using a spray to obtain fine droplets could be an interesting solution.}}
 +
</div>
  
- Procéder à un second lavage. Cette fois, retourner le contenant lentement 4 à 5 fois et attendre 10 minutes. Une agitation excessive favorise la formation d’émulsion et provoquera un délai d’attente supplémentaire. Drainer l’eau de lavage.
+
-Carry on with a second wash. This time, slowly turn the container upside down 4 to 5 times and wait 10 minutes. Excessive agitation could result in the formation of an emulsion and delay the process. Drain off the washing water
  
- Procéder à un troisième lavage. Cette fois, agiter énergiquement le contenant pendant quelques minutes. Laissez reposer puis drainer l’eau de lavage.  
+
- Carry on with a third wash. This time, shake the container energetically for a few minutes. Leave to settle then drain off the washing water.  
  
- Transférer le biodiesel vierge et lavé dans un nouveau contenant.
+
- Transfer the new, washed biodiesel to a new container
  
- Chauffer à 50 °C pendant quelques heures jusqu’à ce que le biodiesel devienne clair.
+
- Heat up to 50°C for a few hours until the biodiesel becomes clear.
 
|Step_Picture_00=Biodiesel_IMG_2585.JPG
 
|Step_Picture_00=Biodiesel_IMG_2585.JPG
 
|Step_Picture_01=Biodiesel_IMG_2586.JPG
 
|Step_Picture_01=Biodiesel_IMG_2586.JPG
 
}}
 
}}
{{ {{tntn|Tuto Step}}
+
{{Tuto Step
|Step_Title=Traitement du glycérol
+
|Step_Title=Treating glycerol
|Step_Content={{Warning|ATTENTION : Cette étape, bien qu’indispensable, doit être effectuée avec beaucoup de précautions. Le méthanol est un gaz extrêmement inflammable et explosif. Effectuer cette opération dans un lieu bien ventilé. Eviter au maximum le chauffage par flamme ouverte. Soyez vigilent à la conception de votre alambic, l’augmentation simultanée de pression et de température peut rendre le mélange explosif. }}La récupération du méthanol contenu peut s’effectuer par distillation du glycérol, c’est-à-dire en chauffant le glycérol à une température supérieure à 65°C, le point d’ébullition du méthanol. Les vapeurs de méthanol doivent ensuite passer au travers d’un condenseur, refroidir et être récoltées sous forme de liquide en sortie.
+
|Step_Content=<div class="mw-translate-fuzzy">
 +
{{Warning|: This stage, although it's essential, must be carried out with extreme precaution. Methanol is an extremely flammable and explosive gas. This operation is to be carried out in a well-ventilated area. Avoid open flame heating as much as possible. Be careful when choosing your still, the simultaneous increase in pressure and temperature could make the blend explosive. }} Recovery of methanol can be obtained by the distillation of glycerol, by heating it at a temperature above 65% which is the boiling point of methanol. Methanol vapours then go through a condenser, are cooled down and collected in liquid form from the outlet.
 +
</div>
 +
 
 +
Video tutorial on making your own still: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5H1UVv8FaO8
 +
 
 +
• Form a coil with the copper pipe (around a canister for example). Leave both ends straight, roughly 30cm long.
 +
• Attach the flexible tube to the outlet of the pressure cooker with pipe clamps.
 +
• Connect the copper pipe and the flexible tube together with pipe clamps.
 +
{For information| check your connections are watertight. For example, you can put the whole device in water and blow through the pipe. Make sure no bubbles come out of the connections.}
  
'''Tuto vidéo de construction d'un alambic maison: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5H1UVv8FaO8'''
+
Pour the glycerin into the pressure cooker and heat it up to at least 100 degrees. Glycerol has a boiling temperature of 290°C, there is no need to precisely control the temperature.
* Former un serpentin avec le tuyau de cuivre (Par exemple autour d'un bidon d'eau). Laisser les deux extrémités rectilignes sur environ 30 cm.
+
• Cool the copper coil down by placing it in a tub of water or with a wet cloth to accelerate the condensation of methanol.
* Fixer le tuyau flexible sur la sortie de la cocotte minute à l'aide d'un collier de serrage.
+
• Collect the condensed methanol in a glass jar.
* Réaliser la jonction entre le tube de cuivre et le tuyau flexible à l'aide de colliers de serrage. 
 
{{Info|Pour vérifier l'étanchéité des jonctions, on peut par exemple, plonger l'ensemble dans un bac rempli d'eau et souffler à une extrémité. Assurez-vous que des bulles ne s'échappent pas des jonctions.}}
 
*Verser la glycérine dans la cocotte minute et chauffer l'ensemble à au moins 100 degrès. Le glycérol ayant une température d’ébullition de 290°C, pas besoin de contrôler précisément la température.
 
*Refroidir le serpentin de cuivre en le plongeant dans un bac d'eau ou avec un linge humide pour accélérer la condensation du méthanol.
 
*Récolter le méthanol recondensé dans un bocal en verre.
 
 
|Step_Picture_00=Biodiesel_IMG_2736.JPG
 
|Step_Picture_00=Biodiesel_IMG_2736.JPG
 
|Step_Picture_01=Biodiesel_IMG_2741.JPG
 
|Step_Picture_01=Biodiesel_IMG_2741.JPG
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|Step_Picture_03=Biodiesel_IMG_2740.JPG
 
|Step_Picture_03=Biodiesel_IMG_2740.JPG
 
}}
 
}}
{{ {{tntn|Notes}}
+
{{Notes
 
|Notes=https://attra.ncat.org/attra-pub-summaries/?pub=318
 
|Notes=https://attra.ncat.org/attra-pub-summaries/?pub=318
  
Line 301: Line 305:
 
http://www.make-biodiesel.org/
 
http://www.make-biodiesel.org/
 
}}
 
}}
{{ {{tntn|Tuto Status}}
+
{{Tuto Status
 
|Complete=Published
 
|Complete=Published
 
}}
 
}}
{{ {{tntn|Separator}}}}
+
{{Separator}}

Latest revision as of 15:03, 22 October 2019

Tutorial de avatarLow-tech Lab | Categories : Energy

Biodiesel IMG 2512.JPG

This tutorial gives you the process on how to make biodiesel on a medium-scale (about 50L) from used cooking oil. This tutorial was written following the Nomade des Mers crew's visit to Cambodia. The social enterprise Naga Earth collects and converts used cooking oil from the town's hotels and restaurants into biodiesel. They also make soap with glycerin that comes from this same reaction. This benefits various schools and associations who carry out hygiene programs throughout the region.

License : Attribution (CC BY)

Introduction

Biodiesel is an alternative fuel to petro-sourced diesel. It can be used alone in engines or blended with petro diesel with different concentration levels. This fuel is obtained from vegetable oil or animal fat that is converted by a chemical process named "transesterification". It involves making oil react with an alcohol (methanol or ethanol) and a catalyst (sodium or potassium hydroxide) in order to obtain methyl or ethyl esters (biodiesel) and a by-product called glycerin.

Biodiesel can be made in various amounts. The processes described here are suitable for occasional production and small amounts. Because the process requires practice, we recommend you start by making small amounts then gradually go towards a larger scale of production.

"Biodiesel has man benefits, making it an interesting fuel alternative:"

  • It is simple to make yourself. *It can be produced at a low cost* It can be used in any conventional diesel engine. It also allows for better lubrication of the engine. *It contributes to the recycling of organic waste, such as used cooking oil that is widely used in restaurants. *It is made from vegetable oil and therefore releases only a small additional amount of CO2 into the atmosphere. It also reduces the emissions of certain harmful compounds compared to petro-diesel (carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, etc)
Safety measures

- Wear safety glasses, a gown, resistant gloves and long clothes. Working with a breathing mask is also recommended.

- Methanol is the most dangerous product in the making of biodiesel. It's very flammable and the slightest spark could cause burns or an explosion. It is also toxic and can cause blindness if inhaled or ingested.

- Sodium hydroxide (soda - NaOH) and potassium hydroxide (caustic potash - KOH) are corrosive products, avoid all skin contact (if skin contact should occur, rinse with vinegar then with water).

  • Work with an extinguisher nearby.

- Work in a well-ventilated area (to reduce the risk of toxic vapours).

- Work near a sink and a source of running water.

If you wish to reduce both your consumption and expenses on fossil fuel, there are several options available:

Although this tutorial describes the third option, it's important to consider the two other options beforehandThe first step is therefore dedicated to the different considerations to be taken into account before choosing. }}

Video overview

Materials

"1.1 Oil"

Our approach being the most ecological possible, the oil used for making biodiesel is "used cooking oil" collected from all sorts of eating establishments. In order to collect the best sort of oil, talk to the owner of the restaurant as well as the chef so you can explain the purpose of your approach. Collecting oil without permission can be qualified as an offence. Furthermore, make sure you check the quality of the oil collected. Used oil contains free fatty acids. They appear when oil is left in the open air over a certain period of time and becomes rancid or when heated in the presence of water. Frying food (that contains water) therefore causes FFAs to appear in oil. During transesterification, these FFAs react with the catalyst (strong base) and create an unwanted soap. The soap stops the products of the reaction, biodiesel and glycerol, from separating correctly, which creates an emulsion that is difficult to work with.

The more the cooking oil is used, the more the concentration in FFAs increases and becomes browner. "Therefore, try to avoid collecting old, brown oil". The better the quality of the oil is, the easier the converting process will be.

When making biodiesel, "prefer" using oil such as vegetable oil with a neutral pH or nearly neutral such as "rapeseed, corn oil or sunflower oil". These oils have a low freezing point, which means they don't solidify if temperatures drop in winter (freezing temperatures for these oils range from -10°C to -2°C for rapeseed, -15°C for sunflower).

"Avoid peanut, coconut and palm oil or animal fats" because the temperatures at which they solidify are too high (>10°C), even if biodiesel has a lower freezing point than the oil it originates from. Also ban olive oil that is too acidic, these acids could interfere during the reaction in the creating of biodiesel.

1.2 Methanol

Methanol, or wood alcohol, used to be obtained by wood pyrolysis. Nowadays, it is synthesized from natural gas and is mainly used as an antifreeze for coolants, as a solvent for the synthesis of other chemicals or as fuel in the racing field (dragsters, model engines). It can be purchased through suppliers who specialize in chemicals, some DIY stores and garages.

To make biodiesel, it's important you use methanol that's practically pure (99%).
It's very flammable and the slightest spark could cause burns or an explosion. It is also toxic and can cause blindness if inhaled or ingested.

1.3 Catalyst

Either sodium hydroxide (NaOH, caustic soda) or potassium hydroxide (KOH, caustic potash) can be used as a catalyst. They are both corrosive and highly basic. These chemicals are quite common and can be found in DIY stores, on line or through chemical suppliers. KOH and NaOH are both hygroscopic, which means they absorb the humidity in the atmosphere quickly. They become less efficient catalysts in the presence of water: always keep them in sealed, airtight containers.

NaOH vs KOH, different properties."

  • Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) is less expensive and commonly used to make biodiesel on a small scale. However, sodium hydroxide (NaOH) contaminates the water used for cleaning biodiesel and must not be disposed of in nature. We therefore suggest you don't use it if you cannot ensure water treatment.
  • Potassium hydroxide (KOH) having higher catalysis properties, is gaining in popularity. Potassium hydroxide (KOH) dissolves easier in methanol and is less sensitive to water. Furthermore, the glycerin obtained through the reaction remains liquid and can be added to compost with more safety or used in small amounts as a supplement for animal feed.

Tools

Transesterification

  • 250 mL of methanol/ litre of oil * If you are using new oil : 5,5g of NaOH or 7g of KOH / litre of oil. *If you are using used oil: Calculate the catalyst mass that must be added when you get to the titration stage. Modèle:For information

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* 1 clean, dry container with a drain tube or a tap for when you want to carry out the reaction Modèle:For information
  • • 1 submersible pump so you can do the blending in the canister * - 1 one hot plate or heating resistor * - 1 temperature sensor * - 1 precision balance * - 1 funnel * - 1 big glass jar shut or a stainless steel tank for the blending of the methanol and the catalyst * - 1 measuring glass for the dosage of methanol* - rubber gloves * - safety glasses *

"Filtration"

- 1 canister of new oil * - 1 clean and empty oil canister * - 1 funnel * - 1 cotton sheet/ 1 sock * - a 1 to 5µm filter bag"

"Titration"

  • - 10ml of isopropyl alcohol or isopropanol. * -1ml of your used oil * - 2-3 drops of phenolphthalein (indicator) * - 1L of distilled water * - 1g of catalyst, sodium hydroxide NaOH or potassium hydroxide KOH. •
Always keep these products in a sealed, airtight container
  • - 1 scale* - 1 small container/glass jar * - 3 measuring cylinders/tubes * - Two 1mL graduated syringes or cruets. Please take note that one syringe is for the oil and the other one is for the soda-water blend. * - Rubber gloves * - Safety glasses- Breathing mask

"distillation of glycerol"

  • - 1 pressure cooker * a 5m copper pipe * a 50cm heat-resistant flexible tube (silicone, Teflon) * Conventional pipe clamps for plumbing

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Step 1 - Identify your needs

There are at least three ways of making a diesel engine run with vegetable oil:

The two first methods look easy, but as for many things, it isn’t that simple.

1. Blends"

Vegetable oil is a lot more viscous (thicker) than petro-diesel or biodiesel The purpose of blending or mixing SVOs with other fuels or solvents is to reduce the viscosity to make it thinner, so it will flow easier through the fuel system to the combustion chamber. However, this is not the only problem when using SVOs. Its chemical properties and combustion characteristics are different to those of petro-diesel, for which diesel engines and their fuel systems are designed for. Diesel engines, especially the most modern ones, are high-tech machines with specific fuel needs (see la controverse TDI-SVO).

People use various blends, ranging from 10% SVO and 90% petro-diesel to 90% SVO and 10% petro-diesel. Some people use it as it is, without preheating (which makes the vegetable oil a lot less viscous). Some even use 100% SVO without preheating. They often don't realize the long term effects on the engine

You might manage it during the summer period with something like an old 5 cylinder Mercedes-Benz that's over 80 years old, that has a very resistant and tolerant engine. It won't like it but you probably won't destroy the engine. Otherwise, it probably isn't a good idea.

I can't guarantee it but using a blend containing up to 20% of good quality vegetable oil with 80% of petro-diesel is known to be quite safe for old diesels, especially in summer.

If you blend SVO with petro-diesel, you'll still be using fossil fuels - so you'll be cleaner than average, but still not enough for others. Yet, for each litre of SVO you use, you save one litre of fossil fuel and lower carbon dioxide emissions. dioxyde de carbone

However, in order to do it correctly and safely all year round, you will need a system suitable for SVO, including a preheating fuel system at the least (see below) and in that case, blending isn't needed, you can simply use 100% SVO.

Lastly, blending SVOs with other solvents like mineral turpentine (white spirit) or other "secret" ingredients such as naphthalene or xylol or with unleaded petrol are only experimental processes at this point in time and the effects of these additives on the characteristics of fuel combustion or their long term effects on the engine remain unknown. We highly recommend you don't choose this kind of solution: use such blends at your own risk.

2. Straight vegetable oil with engine modification"

Direct SVO fuel systems can be a clean, efficient and economical option.

Unlike biodiesel, you will need to modify your engine so you can use SVO. The best way to get one is to purchase a [professional single-tank SVO system http://journeytoforever.org/biodiesel_svo.html#1tank] with optimized injector nozzles, glow-plugs for vegetable oil as well as a fuel pre-heating system. With this system, you can use petro-diesel, biodiesel or SVO, with any combination you like. Start up and go, turn off and stop, just like any other car.

There are other SVO systems with two tanks that preheat the oil to make it less viscous. You must start your engine up with ordinary petro-diesel ( or biodiesel) in the tank, then switch to SVO in the other tank once the vegetable oil is hot enough (so quite liquid) then come back to petro-diesel before turning the engine off, or you'll clog the injectors.

You can find lots of information about SVO systems on here.

3 Biodiesel or SVO?"

Biodiesel has many obvious advantages over SVO:

  • It works in any diesel car, without any conversion or modification of the engine or fuel system - all you need to do is put it in the tank and start your car up. *It also has better properties than SVO when the weather is cold (but not as good as those of petro-diesel-see here for the use of biodiesel in winter). *Unlike SVO, many tests have been carried out on the long term in many countries, covering millions of kilometres.

Biodiesel is a clean replacement fuel, safe and ready to use, whereas many SVO systems are still experimental and need to be developed.

On the other hand, biodiesel can be more expensive, depending on the amount you produce, what you get from it and the comparison with oil or new petrol. And unlike SVO, it requires treatment. (The purpose of this tutorial). But the community of biodiesel producers that is continuously expanding, doesn't seem too concerned about the matter - they do their weekly or monthly produce and become familiar with the process quite quickly. Many have been doing so for many years.

Anyhow, SVO must also be treated, especially WVO that many people use with SVO systems because they are cheap and sometimes even free. When using WVO, food particles, impurities and water must be removed from it. It will also need to be deacidified. Biodiesel producers think: "If I need to do all that, I might as well make biodiesel instead". But SVO supporters will claim it requires a lot less treatment than biodiesel.

Everyone's taste is different....the decision is yours!

On the table opposite is a summary of the main differences between making biodiesel and modifying your engine to use SVO directly. SVO/WVO are the English-speaking equivalences of HVC/HVR in French.

$ Financial considerations: $

On average, a French person consumes: 1,3[€/L]*4/100[L/km]*19000[km/an] = 988 €/year, representing roughly 1000€ per year on diesel.

Biodiesel costs between 0.5€ and 1€ per litre to produce from recycled oil, representing between 380 and 760€ per year. A good treatment system, adapted to this production volume can be built for roughly 100€. The cost is therefore recovered within a few months.

A SVO system costs between 900 and 1800€. If SVO is free, the cost will therefore be recovered within 1 to 2 years.



Step 2 - Filtration

Before it can be converted, the used oil must be filtered first in order to remove any possible food residues (fries, doughnuts...). We recommend you let the oil settle for a few days. An initial filtration must be carried out to get rid of the biggest particles (e.g.: with a double cotton sheet or a sock...). Then pour the oil into a 5µm maximum filter bag (the finer the better) above the clean canister, prepared beforehand.



Step 3 - Oil titration (for used oil only)*

- Weigh precisely 1g of catalyst and dissolve it in 1L of distilled water.

Always add the catalyst to water. Never pour water on to the catalyst.

- In a glass measuring container, measure 10mL of isopropanol.

- Take 1mL of your testing oil with a graduated syringe and add it to the isopropanol.

- Add 3 drops of phenolphthalein to the blend.

- Stir the blend thoroughly, with a magnetic stirrer if possible.

- Fill the graduated cruet up with 10mL of the distilled water/catalyst blend, make sure you rinse the cruet with distilled water before using.

- Add the distilled water-catalyst to the blend, drop by drop, while stirring continuously.

- Continue to gradually add the titrant until the end point is obtained. The blend becomes a dark pink colour. The colour change should last 20 seconds.

- Take note of the exact volume of distilled water/catalyst (Vtitration) used to neutralize the acidity of the oil.

- Do a second test and calculate the average of your tests for more precision.

- Use this information to find out the amount of catalyst you need to add to the reaction following this formula: (To understand more about the formula, see ANNEX 2 of this document

"Catalyst mass required (g) = (B+ Vtitration (mL)) x Volume of oil (L)

With:

Vtitration: volume of titrant added to neutralize the acidity of the oil (mL)

B: base quantity (catalyst) required for the reaction with unused oil.

B (KOH) = 7.0 g/L

B (NaOH) = 5.5 g/L

For example: For 50L of oil with KOH and a titration of 3mL, we get: m(NaOH) = (7+3) x 50 = 500g

Step 4 - Transesterification

- Heat the oil at 60°C and maintain at this temperature.

Make sure you don't exceed this temperature! The melting point of methanol is 65°C and overpressure could occur due to the production of methanol vapour in the closed container.

- Pour the methanol into the glass container.

Do not pour into a plastic or aluminium container, it could dissolve. Make sure all these operations are carried out in a well-ventilated area. As a reminder, methanol vapours are toxic.

- Weigh the amount of soda calculated during the previous stage if using used oil and add to the methanol.

Long sleeves, glasses and a safety mask are required for this operation. Vapours are very corrosive.

- Stir and let the catalyst dissolve completely in the methanol. This takes roughly 2 minutes. And once again, be careful: the blend deteriorates quickly. Carry on with the next stage as soon as the catalyst/methanol blend is homogeneous.

- Add the catalyst/methanol blend to the hot oil (60°C). Leave the elements to blend together for several hours. Two products are formed from this reaction; biodiesel and glycerol. Biodiesel being less dense, it forms the top layer.

-Wait 24 hours or more before carrying out the next stage.


Step 5 - Separating the glycerol.

Drain off the glycerol from the bottom of the tank into a new container. Make sure there is no glycerin left in the biodiesel. Keep the glycerol aside.


Step 6 - The washing and drying of biodiesel.

-Slowly add the washing solution representing the equivalent of 20% the volume of biodiesel, to avoid the formation of soap and wait 10 minutes. Drain off the washing water.

-Carry on with a second wash. This time, slowly turn the container upside down 4 to 5 times and wait 10 minutes. Excessive agitation could result in the formation of an emulsion and delay the process. Drain off the washing water

- Carry on with a third wash. This time, shake the container energetically for a few minutes. Leave to settle then drain off the washing water.

- Transfer the new, washed biodiesel to a new container

- Heat up to 50°C for a few hours until the biodiesel becomes clear.


Step 7 - Treating glycerol

: This stage, although it's essential, must be carried out with extreme precaution. Methanol is an extremely flammable and explosive gas. This operation is to be carried out in a well-ventilated area. Avoid open flame heating as much as possible. Be careful when choosing your still, the simultaneous increase in pressure and temperature could make the blend explosive.
Recovery of methanol can be obtained by the distillation of glycerol, by heating it at a temperature above 65% which is the boiling point of methanol. Methanol vapours then go through a condenser, are cooled down and collected in liquid form from the outlet.

Video tutorial on making your own still: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5H1UVv8FaO8

• Form a coil with the copper pipe (around a canister for example). Leave both ends straight, roughly 30cm long. • Attach the flexible tube to the outlet of the pressure cooker with pipe clamps. • Connect the copper pipe and the flexible tube together with pipe clamps. {For information

Notes and references

https://attra.ncat.org/attra-pub-summaries/?pub=318

http://journeytoforever.org/biodiesel_make.html#start

http://carburerauxalgues.com/site/download/download_file_st/ActiviteI_ELEVES/pdf

http://www.make-biodiesel.org/

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