This tutorial aims to introduce hydroponics culture and build a system for individuals. This technology was documented during the visit to Singapore of the "Nomadic Seas" expedition. We met the Comcrop company that grows aromatic plants (basil, mint...) on an area that is usually unused and worthless: the roofs of buildings!
Hydroponics is the cultivation of plants and vegetation above ground and in water. The roots are immersed in a neutral and inert substrate (such as clay balls, sand...) which serves as a support. They directly capture the nutrients necessary for their growth in water enriched with a nutrient solution. Unlike conventional hydroponics, biopony (hydroponics+organic) allows fruits and vegetables to be grown organically without the use of synthetic chemical fertilizers. These are replaced by organic fertilizers such as manure, earthworm, tea and urine from oxygenated compost.
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In biopony, the nutrient solution is not sterile and bacteria, micro-organisms and fungi can develop. These active micro-organisms will make it possible to transform certain substances such as ammonia into nitrate, one of the nutrients essential for plant growth. In our case we use an organic solution by mixing water with human urine (1% urine in relation to the volume of water).
"Hydroponics has many advantages in certain contexts:
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"But hydroponics can also have disadvantages:
1. Crop gutters
Prefer the small clay balls, they are heavier and will allow a better maintenance of the roots
2. Irrigation system
3. Filter and bio-filter
In order to ensure homogeneity of the water in terms of nutrients and temperature, we recommend using about 40L of water per square metre of cultivation. }} 4. Control system
|Tools=* Drill/driver or screwdriver
The system used measures 2m long by 50cm wide. The skeleton is made up of 4 cleats / bamboos fixed in parallel at a distance of 15 cm thanks to wooden cleats. It is covered with an agricultural cover (width 1m) so as to form 3 gutters about 10cm deep. These gutters are filled with clay balls. An aquarium pump immersed in the biofilter tank propels the nutrient solution from the top side of these gutters (inclination of about 10 degrees) so that it flows through the clay balls until it returns to the storage tank (biofilter). The table is about 1.2m high (ergonomic for taking care of plants). A shade screen is attached like a skirt on the sides to protect the biofilters, nutrient solution storage tank and mushroom farm from the sun.
2. Water recovery
The water system operates in a closed circuit. The water is pumped into the biofilter that serves as a reservoir, exits at one end of the gutter and is recollected at the other end before passing through a filter and returning to the initial reservoir.
In order to recover the water, the tarpaulin is pierced very finely (to prevent the clay balls from escaping) at the opposite end of the water inlet. Below this end, another tarpaulin is stapled to form a pocket to collect and channel the water before it flows into the filter.
Once passed through the plants, the water flows into two separate tanks: the filter and the biofilter.
- The purpose of the filter is to block all coarse particles that could block the pumps (root and leaf residues, erosion of clay balls, etc.). The filter has three stages of filtration, from the finest to the coarsest.
- The biofilter constitutes the water reservoir, to which is added about a quarter of the volume in clay beads. These serve as a culture medium for bacteria that will allow the transformation of natural inputs (urine, compost juice, etc.) into nutrients that can be assimilated by plants. In particular, the transformation of ammonia into nitrite and then nitrate, essential for foliar development (leaf development). Bacteria develop naturally after 6 weeks or can be purchased in culture at hydroponics sites.
For their proper development, bacteria need:
For our part, we only use human urine as an input (See below for assays)!
In our system, the clay beads of the biofilter are replaced by plastic beads that are also good nests for bacteria (but not natural).
Après avoir été filtrée, oxygénée et rechargée en nutriments, l'eau est prête à être réinjectée dans le système. Pour cela, on utilise une petite pompe submersible. La puissance de la pompe dépend de la taille de votre système.
Afin de gagner en autonomie, il est possible d'installer un système de minuterie grâce à une prise électrique programmable ou un arduino permettant de programmer les mises en route de la pompe et du bulleur.
Pour cela, nous conseillons un allumage de la pompe pendant 30 min toutes les 2h, durant la journée. Pas d'arrosage la nuit.
Nous conseillons un allumage du bulleur 1 minute toutes les 5 minutes, 24h/24.
Système de commande Arduino:
Toutes les cultures ne sont pas adaptées à l'hydroponie. Il est plus simple, notamment sans engrais chimiques, de préférer les légumes feuilles (salade, choux, épinards, patates douces...) et les aromates (menthe, basilic, coriandre).
"Planter" les dans les billes d'argiles en veillant à bien immerger les racines.
Il faut toujours intégrer les plantes après les avoir semées ou bouturées afin qu'elles aient développé un système racinaire assez long et résistant.