Difference between revisions of "Four solaire (cuiseur type boîte)/en"

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6) Fix the ear to the cadre/glass with the last 2 hinges.
 
6) Fix the ear to the cadre/glass with the last 2 hinges.
  
'''Remarque''' : la face arrière avec le ruban adhésif sera la partie visible, il est donc important de  s’appliquer !
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"Comment": The back face with the tape will be the visible, it is therefore important to do it right!
  
 
Les oreilles sont fixées. Il faut maintenant y ajouter des cordes pour les maintenir à un certain angle.  
 
Les oreilles sont fixées. Il faut maintenant y ajouter des cordes pour les maintenir à un certain angle.  

Revision as of 18:04, 20 May 2018

Tutorial de avatarDavid M | Categories : Food, Energy

Introduction

CONTEXT :

"The increase of greenhouse gases concerns the entire planet. Each solar oven avoid the production of 1.5 tons of CO2 per year." Bolivia Inti. Indeed, almost 3 billions of individuals only got wood to cook their food.

South' Countries

In the countries of the South, the solar cooker answers many issues and presents numerous benefits:

  • Health: prevent eyes and lungs infection due to smoke production, avoid diarrhoea by making water clean through the process of pasteurization.
  • Climat: restrain the deforestation and the soil degradation.
  • Economic: reduce the cost of combustible
  • Human: emancipate women and children from the wood chore (15 hours par week, 4 times 20kg).

In France

In France, more and more people wish to be self-sufficient regarding energy. David is one of them; he is using the solar energy. He use a solar oven to boil his water, cook his pieds, cakes or others recipes with gentle cooking.

Pros

Built from easy to find material: wood, plywood board, domestic aluminium paper, glass and thermal insulator (cork, sheep's wool, vermiculite, polystyrene...). The production process is easy and cheap. When the sun is here, you can reach high temperatures, up to 120° to 170°, in this two ears system.

Functioning

The solar oven is a box well hermitically isolated with a transparent cover and reflective faces inside: the sun ray enter by the glass et reflect on the borders of the box to hit the dark surface of the pot. The energy of those raws is so transformed into heat, heat that is stuck in the box. To increase the received solar flux, two ears covered by aluminium are fixed on each side of the box. This permits to reflect the light on the glass which should be as perpendicular as possible to the sun raws. With the metropolitan France's latitudes, the right tilt of sun regarding to the horizon is around 60° in summer and 30° in winter. Thereby, the optimal tilt of the glass is 30° in winter and 60° in summer.

The solar oven only runs thanks to the sun raws: clouds, fog and dust reduce the the radiation and thereby, therefore increase the cooking time.

Video overview

Materials

The box:

  • 9 plywood panels of 500x500mm and around 10mm of thickness (not too thick to not overweight the box)
  • Isolator of around 40mm of thickness (4 panels of 500x500mm): polystyrene (available at the fishmonger/ at the and of the market or in electric shop), cork panel, vermiculite...
  • 4 meters of stick (same thickness of the isolator)
  • Aluminium paper or black tape (more expensive)
  • Casing assembly 4x40 (around 80)
  • Nails 1,5x25mm (around 10)

Glass, cadre and ears:

  • Glass of 410x470mm, not to thick, 2 to 3mm (available in carpenters' trashes)
  • Chipboard panel of the same thickness of the winder, one of 500x500mm and another one of 500x500mm
  • Wood pallet or wooden board (8 boards of around 500x60mm and not to thick (around 20mm)
  • 1 meter of thin hinge with flat head screws OR 6 hinges
  • 3 meters of string (4mm of diameter)
  • Seal

Tools

  • Screwer/ drill
  • Jigsaw
  • Hacksaw
  • Glass bowl (if needed)
  • Tape
  • Lighter
  • Stall
  • Clamp
  • Measurer
  • Cutter
  • Scissors
  • Sandpaper
  • Square, ruler, protractor
  • Helmet and safety glasses

Step 1 - The box interior: cutting of panels and assembly of the box

1) Take the plywood panels and the measurer

2) Copy the dimensions of the side A on one of the panels with a ruler

3) Use the protractor to create an angle of 60° and another one of 30° as shown on the schema.

4) Fix the panel on the working table with the clamp.

5) Protect the ears and the eyes

6) Cut following the drawings with the jigsaw.

7) Copy the dimensions of the schema on the second panel to realize the side B.

8) Cut the second panel

9) Draw, cut the panels C, D and E

"Comment": if at the cutting of the panels, the borders of the plywood panel contains thorns, it can be difficult to sand the borders with sandpaper.

The panels being voluntary thin, it is necessary to fix on the panels A and B the sticks that will be used as support to screw the panels C, D and E. The sticks will be, in ideal, of the same thickness of the isolator.

Cut the sticks

1) Take the sticks and draw the desired dimensions

2) Fix the sticks on the clamping and cut with a saw.

Fix the stick to the panels

3) Position one of the stick and use the clamp to maintain the whole

4) Return the panel and screw with a screw (two screws per stick is enough).

"Comment": Keep in mind to keep the thickness of a panel between the "arrête" and the stick (it is at this place that the panels C, D and E will come).

1) Screw the panels C, D and E on the sticks, 3 screws are enough.

We obtain so the inside of the box. The isolator will be added and then the inside box will be covered with reflectings.

"Comment": To screw, it is sometime judicious to pre-screw with a drill or a broach.

Step 2 - The isolator: cutting and positioning of the isolator in the box.

The isolator will be bound between the sticks.

1) Take the isolator and the measurer

2) Reproduce the measures on the isolation panels with the measurer

3) Cut with the cutter and then snap into place.



Step 3 - The interior of the box: cutting of the panels A', B', C', D' and E'.

1) Reproduce the measures on the panels and cut

2) Annotate the inside face of a "I" to recognize the face that will be covered by aluminium paper.

3) Coast the panels A', B', C', D' and E' of aluminium paper.

4) Fix the aluminium paper with tape on the back.

"Attention": the aluminium paper is really fragile. If a hole appears, cover it with aluminium paper and tape.

5) Slot the panels at their place.

"To finish with the box":

6) Use the rest of ... to finish the box. In other words, close the space occupied by isolator, use the measurer to do so.

7) Screw the panels with on the sticks (two screws per panels are enough).

Step 4 - The cadre of the glass: cutting, assembly and fixation on the box

"Explanation": The cadre is formed by 3 layers, it will coat the glass and maintain it. A first layer (panel 1, 2, 3 and 4) will form the inside cadre. Under, we put the glass that should enter by 1,5cm. To avoid that the glass goes out and that it is well maintained, we add a layer of the same thickness and dimensions of panels 1, 2, 3 and 4 minus the 1,5cm taken by the glass. Then, we cover the panels 1', 2', 3' and 4'. This last layer is putted alongside, thereby, the aire will have more difficulties to penetrate.

1) Take the pallet/wood boards

2) Cut the board 1, 2, 3 and 4 et use those as pattern to make a second série: 1', 2', 3' and 4'.

"Comment": Use the schemas for the dimensions

3) Make two strips of 500x35mm and two of 470x45mm from the chipboard panel of the same thickness of the glass.

4) The boards 1 and 1' will be slotted to the chipboard "a" and this alongside, in a way to black the air. Screw the whole in a way to create 4 modules.

5) Fix the two modules together, then the 2 others together in a way to create angles

6) Interlock the glass

7) Fix the modules togethers, the glass in maintained: the cadre is finished.

"Comment": if the window has been retrieve, it is possible to cut it with a glass cutter (410x470mm).

8) If needed, cut the meter of hinge with a hacksaw in a way to obtain at least 6 hinges (with 2 holes at minimum).

9) Take 2 hinges and fix them with flat headed screws on the border of the glass/cadre.

10). Screw the other side of the hinge to the board A' of the box.

11) Add seal on the board A', B', C', and D' in a way to not let air penetrate when the cadre in closed.

Step 5 - The ears

1) Take the last panel of plywood of 500x550mm of dimension

2) Cut a strip of 15x500mm. This one will serve to thicken the chipboard of 3mm to better screw and fix the hinges.

3) Coat the panel of aluminium.

4) Fix the hinges on the inside face (covered by aluminium) and on the cadre.

5) Take the last chipboard, cover it with aluminium and fix the strip on one of the extremities with a nail.

6) Fix the ear to the cadre/glass with the last 2 hinges.

"Comment": The back face with the tape will be the visible, it is therefore important to do it right!

Les oreilles sont fixées. Il faut maintenant y ajouter des cordes pour les maintenir à un certain angle.

7) Pour la position été, c’est l’oreille externe qui va devoir être maintenue en suspension. On va venir visser une vis sur le côté externe du cadre et y enrouler une cordelette.

Pour la position hivers ce sera l’oreille interne.

8) Sur l’oreille, percer deux trous à environ 2 cm d’écart dans le coin et situés à environ 70 mm du bord.

9) Dans les chutes prendre un petit bout de bois (20x10mm) et y percer deux trous.

10) Y faire passer la corde dans un des deux trous, faire passer la corde dans un des deux trous de l’oreille puis dans le deuxième, puis la faire passer dans le second trou du petit bout de bois.

11) Faire un nœud à l’extrémité de la corde et bruler le bout pour ne pas qu’elle s’effiloche.

12) Faire de même pour l’oreille plus fine, cependant cette fois ci visser sur le côté intérieur du cadre. Cette oreille sera la première à être fermée, la corde va se caler entre la vitre et l’oreille.

Il faut maintenant créer des cales permettant de les maintenir en l’air.

13) À partir des chutes, créer des baguettes d’environ 1,5 cm d’épaisseur, affiner le bout de la baguette comme pour faire un piquet.

14) Faire des trous dans l’oreille, ils serviront de crans pour les piquets.

15) Clouer la baguette à l’extérieur du cadre.

16) Fixer un clou à l’opposé qui servira de cale lorsque le four sera fermé.

Remarque : cette partie peut être améliorée, n’hésitez pas à proposer d’autres solutions.


Notes and references

CONSEIL D’UTILISATION / REMARQUE :

  • Utiliser des récipients de couleur foncée, ou peints en noir.
  • Pour capter le maximum de rayonnement, orienter correctement le four solaire par rapport au soleil. Il suffit de le réorienter une fois par heure de manière à avoir l’ombre du four directement derrière lui.
  • Pour perdre le moins de chaleur possible, éviter de trop ouvrir le four pendant la cuisson ! Le mieux est encore de mettre tous les ingrédients nécessaires dès le début.

REFERENCES :

  • Ce four solaire a été réalisé par David Mercereau, n'hésitez pas à aller voir de plus près sa yourte et ses low-tech sur son blog.
  • Pour avoir plus d’informations sur les fours solaires, leur utilisation, comment les orienter et les recettes solaires, l’équipe du Low-Tech Lab vous invite à consulter la rubrique four solaire dans sa Biblilowthèque.
  • Comment récupérer un maximum d’énergie solaire ?
  • Il est également possible de faire des stages auprès de l’association Bolivia Inti ou encore d’acheter directement des fours solaires auprès de ID Cook ou de Solarcooking.
  • N'hésitez pas à commenter, partager, et agrémenter le tutoriel d'informations utiles à son amélioration.

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