Difference between revisions of "Filtre à eau en céramique/en"

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|Licences=Attribution (CC BY)
 
|Licences=Attribution (CC BY)
 
|Description=Water ceramic filter: case study of the filter FILTRON made by MERINSA Company in Lima, Peru.
 
|Description=Water ceramic filter: case study of the filter FILTRON made by MERINSA Company in Lima, Peru.
|Area=Food, Water, Materials
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{{Introduction
|Introduction=Le filtre en céramique FILTRON a été conçu par l’entreprise Merinsa, en partenariat avec l'association américaine Potters For Peace, pour les familles vivant dans les bidonvilles autour de Lima et n’ayant pas accès à l’eau potable. Une étude a été menée pour comprendre comment les filtres réduisent les maladies dues à l'ingestion d'eau non purifiée : un filtre a été donné à 60 familles dans un bidonville près de Lima et une comparaison a été faite avec 60 autres familles ne possédant pas de filtre. Le FILTRON s'est montré très efficace dans la réduction de maladies stomacales. A la fin de l’expérience, un filtre à été donné aux 60 autres familles n’en n’ayant pas bénéficié pendant l’expérience.
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|Introduction=The ceramic filter FILTRON was made by the company Merinsa, in partnership with the American association Potters For Peace, for families living in the slums around Lima and who do not have access to drinkable water. A study was undertaken to see the influence of the filters on the reduction of stomach diseases: a filter was given to 60 families in a slum of Lima and they were studied compared to 60 other families without filter. The FILTRON proved to be very efficient in the reduction of stomach diseases. At the end of the experiment, a filter was given to all the 120 families.
  
Le Filtron peut filtrer 2L d’eau par heure et permet d’éliminer particules et bactéries. Selon la taille du container en plastique, il est possible de stocker 10L d'eau. Le filtre convient donc à une famille.
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The FILTRON filters 2L of water per hour and eliminates particles and bacteria. Depending on the size of the plastic container, it is possible to store 10L of clean water. The filter is thus suitable for a family.
  
Avantages :
+
Advantages:
* L'utilisation    du filtre ne requiert aucune énergie. 
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* The use of the filter does not require any energy
* Utilisation    de matériaux locaux (terre, sciure de bois)
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* Use of local materials (clay, wood fines)
* Maintenance simple :     laver à l’éponge 1x par semaine. Ne pas mettre au soleil car des algues peuvent pousser.
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* Easy maintenance: must be cleaned once a week. Do not put it under the sun otherwise seaweeds can grow
* Très    peu cher (vendu    à 30$ par l'entreprise Merinsa)
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* Cheap (sold for 30$ by Merinsa Company)
* Grande    durée de vie : quelques années
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* Long lifetime: a few years
* Possibilité    de fermer le container en plastique :    le couvercle empêche que l'eau soit re-contaminée
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* Could be sealed (thanks to the plastic container’s lid) which prevents the water from being re-contaminated
Inconvénients :
 
* Utilisation    d'argent (matériau pas toujours présent localement)
 
* Utilisation    d'un four atteignant 1000°C      --> se renseigner si un potier dans votre région possède un four pour    la céramique que vous pouvez utiliser.
 
* Sont    lourds et encombrants
 
* Dans    notre cas, le prix du filtre est bas mais reste encore trop élevé pour les    personnes qui en ont besoin dans les bidonvilles, leur revenu étant trop    faible. Ce sont plutôt des associations caritatives qui achètent les    filtres à l'entreprise Merinsa et les distribuent aux familles. L’entreprise    ne fait pas de bénéfice avec ces filtres, c’est une action sociale.
 
CONTEXTE :
 
  
L’eau est un réel problème au Pérou, dans la montagne, la forêt, sur la côte…En ville, l’eau est chlorée pour être désinfectée. L’eau qui se trouve dans les tuyaux du réseau de la ville est en théorie potable mais cette même eau est souvent stockée dans des tanks. Ces tanks ne sont pas toujours fermés et l’eau se fait ainsi re-contaminer. Les gens achètent donc de l’eau en bouteille ou alors investissent dans des filtres. C’est là qu’intervient Merinsa, l'entreprise étant spécialisée dans la fabrication de filtres. Il y a encore beaucoup à faire au Pérou pour purifier l’eau.
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Disadvantages:
 +
* Use of silver (which is not always a material available locally)
 +
* Use of an oven which should be able to reach 1000°C  see if a potter around you has a ceramic oven and could lend it to you
 +
* Heavy and bulky
 +
* In our case, the price of the filter is low but still too high for the people in the slums who need it. Merinsa Company’s main clients for those filters are charities who then give them out to the families.
  
A Lima, les bidonvilles s'étendent sur les montagnes alentours. L'eau est stockée dans des énormes containers et est accessible (mais contaminée) pour les habitations situées en aval. Les nouvelles habitations construites au fur et à mesure de l'expansion du bidonville se retrouvent en amont de ces containers et n'ont donc pas accès à l'eau.
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Context:
 +
 
 +
Water is a real issue everywhere in Peru, from the mountains to the coast. In the cities, chlorine is used to purify water, thus, water which could be found in the pipes is in theory clean. However, this water is also stored in tanks who are usually not sealed and where the water gets re-contaminated. People buy water in bottles or buy filters. Merinsa Company builds all kind of filters to answer this need but there is still a lot to do in Peru in the field of water in order to provide clean water to everybody.
 +
 
 +
In Lima, the slums are located on the mountains around. Water is stored in huge tanks and is accessible (but contaminated) for families living downstream. As the slum expands, new habitations are built upstream from the tanks and people do not have access to water at all.
  
 
According to Ricardo, at the head of Merinsac , the economical problems are not the only reason why the people from the slums do not buy a Filtron; there is also an educational issue. The families seem not to know that their stomach diseases are coming from the water they drink and thus do not understand why it could be necessary to own such filters. Some families to which a Filtron was given have "taken the ceramic pot off" in order to only retrieve the pmlastic container, whose use appear more obvious to them. The charities should really work on the education and the integration of the filters in the every day life of the families if they want their  donation to be useful.
 
According to Ricardo, at the head of Merinsac , the economical problems are not the only reason why the people from the slums do not buy a Filtron; there is also an educational issue. The families seem not to know that their stomach diseases are coming from the water they drink and thus do not understand why it could be necessary to own such filters. Some families to which a Filtron was given have "taken the ceramic pot off" in order to only retrieve the pmlastic container, whose use appear more obvious to them. The charities should really work on the education and the integration of the filters in the every day life of the families if they want their  donation to be useful.
 
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{{ {{tntn|TutoVideo}}
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{{TutoVideo
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|VideoType=Youtube
|TutoVideoURL=https://youtu.be/ZdnHj77wD58
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|VideoURLYoutube=https://youtu.be/ZdnHj77wD58
 
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|Material=*Clay,  
 
|Material=*Clay,  
 
* Wood fines,  
 
* Wood fines,  
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|Tools=*Oven which could go up to 1000°C
 
|Tools=*Oven which could go up to 1000°C
 
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|Step_Title=Ceramic pot
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The ceramic filters can filter the water using a system of pores: while making the pot wood fines are incorporated in the clay. When the pot is brought to 1000°C in the oven, the woodfines will burn, leaving tiny pores in the pot.
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</div>
 
|Step_Picture_00=Filtre_à_eau_en_céramique_CeramiquePot.jpg
 
|Step_Picture_00=Filtre_à_eau_en_céramique_CeramiquePot.jpg
 
|Step_Picture_01=Filtre_à_eau_en_céramique_Schema.png
 
|Step_Picture_01=Filtre_à_eau_en_céramique_Schema.png
|Step_Title=Ceramic pot
 
|Step_Content=Les filtres à eau en céramiques peuvent purifier l’eau grâce à système de pores : de la sciure de bois est incorporée à la pâte d’argile du pot puis le pot est chauffé à 1000°C . Le bois brûle et laisse des pores dans la céramique.
 
 
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|Step_Title=Silver brushing
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|Step_Content=The silver brushing will eliminate the bacteria.
 
|Step_Picture_00=Filtre_à_eau_en_céramique_SchemaBActBien.png
 
|Step_Picture_00=Filtre_à_eau_en_céramique_SchemaBActBien.png
|Step_Title=Brossage à l'argent
 
|Step_Content=Le brossage à l’argent donne au filtre sa qualité bactéricide
 
 
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|Step_Title=Plastic container
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|Step_Content=The ceramic pot is put in a plastic container. The size of the plastic container could be chosen according to the amount of clean water you will need to store.
 +
 
 +
The Filtron filters use a 20L plastic container which can store 10L of clean water.
 
|Step_Picture_00=Filtre_à_eau_en_céramique_MuchasGracias.png
 
|Step_Picture_00=Filtre_à_eau_en_céramique_MuchasGracias.png
|Step_Title=Container en plastique
 
|Step_Content=Mettre le pot dans un container en plastique plus ou moins grand selon la quantité d'eau que l'on veut pouvoir stocker.
 
 
Les FILTRONs utilisent des containers de 20L et peuvent stocker 10L d'eau purifiée.
 
 
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{{ {{tntn|Notes}}
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{{Notes
|Notes=Retrouvez l'histoire des filtres FILTRON de l'entreprise Merinsa à Lima au Pérou : http://www.merinsa.com/resp_social.html
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|Notes=Find the origin of Merinsa's Filtron in Lima, Peru here: http://www.merinsa.com/resp_social.html
  
L'association américaine Potters For Peace a pour objectif d'aider les potiers du monde entier à fabriquer des filtres à eau en céramique : http://pottersforpeace.org/?page_id=63. Retrouvez leurs tutos pour fabriquer fours/ presses.. : http://pottersforpeace.org/?page_id=487
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The American association Potters For Peace aims to help the potters all around the world to develop ceramic filters: http://pottersforpeace.org/?page_id=63. You can find their tutorial to build an oven or a press here: http://pottersforpeace.org/?page_id=487
  
D'autres infos sur les filtres en céramique sur le site de l'association caritative canadienne CAWST : https://www.hwts.info/products-technologies/d25e3821/ceramic-pot-filter/technical-information
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More information about ceramic filters on the Canadian charity CAST's website: https://www.hwts.info/products-technologies/d25e3821/ceramic-pot-filter/technical-information
  
Nous sommes deux étudiantes en exploration de Low Tech en Amérique du Sud, pour suivre nos découvertes, c'est par ici : https://www.facebook.com/LAtelierLowTech/.
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We are two French students exploring low technologies in South America. Do not hesitate to follow our adventure here : https://www.facebook.com/LAtelierLowTech/
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Latest revision as of 08:54, 8 December 2020

Tutorial de avatarL'Atelier Low Tech | Categories : Food, Water

Water ceramic filter: case study of the filter FILTRON made by MERINSA Company in Lima, Peru.

Difficulty
Hard
Duration
1 day(s)
Cost
30 USD ($)
Other languages:
English • ‎español • ‎français
License : Attribution (CC BY)

Introduction

The ceramic filter FILTRON was made by the company Merinsa, in partnership with the American association Potters For Peace, for families living in the slums around Lima and who do not have access to drinkable water. A study was undertaken to see the influence of the filters on the reduction of stomach diseases: a filter was given to 60 families in a slum of Lima and they were studied compared to 60 other families without filter. The FILTRON proved to be very efficient in the reduction of stomach diseases. At the end of the experiment, a filter was given to all the 120 families.

The FILTRON filters 2L of water per hour and eliminates particles and bacteria. Depending on the size of the plastic container, it is possible to store 10L of clean water. The filter is thus suitable for a family.

Advantages:

  • The use of the filter does not require any energy
  • Use of local materials (clay, wood fines)
  • Easy maintenance: must be cleaned once a week. Do not put it under the sun otherwise seaweeds can grow
  • Cheap (sold for 30$ by Merinsa Company)
  • Long lifetime: a few years
  • Could be sealed (thanks to the plastic container’s lid) which prevents the water from being re-contaminated

Disadvantages:

  • Use of silver (which is not always a material available locally)
  • Use of an oven which should be able to reach 1000°C see if a potter around you has a ceramic oven and could lend it to you
  • Heavy and bulky
  • In our case, the price of the filter is low but still too high for the people in the slums who need it. Merinsa Company’s main clients for those filters are charities who then give them out to the families.

Context:

Water is a real issue everywhere in Peru, from the mountains to the coast. In the cities, chlorine is used to purify water, thus, water which could be found in the pipes is in theory clean. However, this water is also stored in tanks who are usually not sealed and where the water gets re-contaminated. People buy water in bottles or buy filters. Merinsa Company builds all kind of filters to answer this need but there is still a lot to do in Peru in the field of water in order to provide clean water to everybody.

In Lima, the slums are located on the mountains around. Water is stored in huge tanks and is accessible (but contaminated) for families living downstream. As the slum expands, new habitations are built upstream from the tanks and people do not have access to water at all.

According to Ricardo, at the head of Merinsac , the economical problems are not the only reason why the people from the slums do not buy a Filtron; there is also an educational issue. The families seem not to know that their stomach diseases are coming from the water they drink and thus do not understand why it could be necessary to own such filters. Some families to which a Filtron was given have "taken the ceramic pot off" in order to only retrieve the pmlastic container, whose use appear more obvious to them. The charities should really work on the education and the integration of the filters in the every day life of the families if they want their donation to be useful.

Video overview

Materials

  • Clay,
  • Wood fines,
  • Silver,
  • Plastic container with a tap,

Tools

  • Oven which could go up to 1000°C

Step 1 - Ceramic pot

The ceramic filters can filter the water using a system of pores: while making the pot wood fines are incorporated in the clay. When the pot is brought to 1000°C in the oven, the woodfines will burn, leaving tiny pores in the pot.



Step 2 - Silver brushing

The silver brushing will eliminate the bacteria.




Step 3 - Plastic container

The ceramic pot is put in a plastic container. The size of the plastic container could be chosen according to the amount of clean water you will need to store.

The Filtron filters use a 20L plastic container which can store 10L of clean water.




Notes and references

Find the origin of Merinsa's Filtron in Lima, Peru here: http://www.merinsa.com/resp_social.html

The American association Potters For Peace aims to help the potters all around the world to develop ceramic filters: http://pottersforpeace.org/?page_id=63. You can find their tutorial to build an oven or a press here: http://pottersforpeace.org/?page_id=487

More information about ceramic filters on the Canadian charity CAST's website: https://www.hwts.info/products-technologies/d25e3821/ceramic-pot-filter/technical-information

We are two French students exploring low technologies in South America. Do not hesitate to follow our adventure here : https://www.facebook.com/LAtelierLowTech/

Comments

Published